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Hooman Ali-asghar Clinical Research Development Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences - Islamic Republic of Iran Abstract: Cystinosis is an inherited autosomal recessive with a deficiency of cystin lysosomal transport protein. The outcome and the quality of life varies depends on the family income or patient compliance. In overall, 185 (47% females, 53% males) patients identified in Iran with an incidence of 1. Diagnosis traditionally was based on clinical findings, detection of crystal accumulation on cornea, or bone marrow, measurement of cystin level in leukocytes, or genetic study. Half of patients had novel mutation and the rest showed the common mutation in exons 6 and 7. We found that 58% of patients receive adequate dosage of cystagon according to recommended dosage or the measurement of cystine level of leukocytes. Bonofiglio Nephrology dalysis and transplantation department, Annunziata Hospital, Cosenza - Italy Introduction: Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for hypertension. Methods: School-going adolescents aged 13-16 years enrolled in three secondary schools between 2008 and 2016. Hypertension in childhood is excessively common and an early screening should start at the age of 3 years old. Excess body weight up to obesity and lack of physical activity are the main causes of constantly higher blood pressure values. Material & Method: A ten year old boy, well grown, born to nonconsanguineous parents presented with recurrent painless cola coloured haematuria, depressed serum C3 over past 3 years. Renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy; immunofluorescence negative; electron microscopy reportedly normal. There was transient improvement in Serum C3 and no occurrence of haematuria for next 8 months. The haematuria later recurred with further drop in C3, normal creatinine and no proteinuria. Second renal biopsy done 2 years later revealed focal proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy. We reviewed four cases of children with Alagille syndrome and renal artery stenosis who were referred to the renovascular service at a large tertiary paediatric nephrology centre for management of hypertension. Results: Four patients were identified with Alagille syndrome and renovascular hypertension. There were no intra or perioperative complications including significant bleeding. In addition, two patients needed unilateral nephrectomies for non-functioning kidneys. For microbiome analysis, operational taxonomic units were determined by clustering sequences of the complete experiment to 97% similarity. The gut microbiome profile revealed a high variability within the groups and only subtle differences between the groups on phylogenetic family level could be detected. The analysis of tryptophan metabolites showed significant differences between the groups for several metabolites. Children on hemodialysis showed the highest values, while they decreased significantly after renal transplantation. Subtle differences could be detected although, due to the small sample size, the statistical power of our study was low. Our results allow a first look at the interplay between kidney function, gut microbiome and tryptophan metabolism. The presence of the contrast seen as microbubbles was documented and the severity graded as per the sonography criteria. The aim of this work is to evaluate the incidence of these anomalies in a pediatric population and whether there are gender differences. Vesicoureteral reflux was present in the 32% of girls and in 30% of boys (p ns), while the dysplasia in 12% ofF and in 25% ofM (p< 0. The unilateral congenital renal agenesia was 16% among the females and 15% among the males (p ns). Although the ethiopathogenesis has not yet been completely clarified,the Cakuts represent a model of how gender differences during fetal life can lead to the development of urological anomalies. Our study of malformative uropathy confirms that some congenital abnormalities such as dysplasia, are more frequent in males, while ectopia and renal agenesis are more common in females. Since we do not know yet if the cause of these differences lies in genetic, metabolic, hormonal, environmental or other, it would be appropriate to activate differentiated screening protocols for primary prevention, considering exposure to different sex-specific environmental risk factors. Clinical examination revealed pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, massively enlarged kidneys, and submandibular lymph node enlargement. Once uremia settled, a renal biopsy and bone marrow aspiration & biopsy were performed. This child presented with a rare manifestation of bilateral nephromegaly with no evidence of peripheral blood smear abnormalities. Lymphoblastic infiltration should be suspected in any child who presents with enlarged kidneys. Cardinal signs are congenital arthrogryposis, renal tubular dysfunction, neonatal cholestasis with normal -glutamyl-transpeptidase levels. Additional features include platelet dysfunction, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, ichthyosis, central nervous system anomalies, deafness and failure to thrive. Material & methods: Five months-old patient was admitted to hospital with dysmorphic features (such as flexion contracture and rocker-bottom feet), axial hypotonia, poor feeding and ichthyosis. Laboratory investigation showed elevated conjugated bilirubin and bile acids, with normal value of -glutamyl-transpeptidase, constant acidemia with hyperchloremia and low level of bicarbonate and potassium. Proximal tubular features of Fanconi-type with glucosuria, aminoaciduria, tubular proteinuria, hyperphosphaturia, low phosphate reabsorption, hypercalciuria, increasing polyuria and normal glomerular filtration were defined. The patient presented a tendency to dehydration with severe hypernatremia due to important loss of liquid (200-300 ml/kg/die). Intensive supportive care, including total parenteral nutrition, spironolactone and supplementation with potassium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, ursodeoxycholic acid and fat-soluble vitamins, was administered to improve quality of life. Results: Intensive supplementation of fluids, potassium and bicarbonate reduced constant acidemia and normalized electrolytes, whereas enalapril and indomethacin improved water balance and allowed safe discharge with intensive home care. The patient also presented an unconventional improvement of cholestasis and is still alive and clinically stable at 12 months of life. Philip 4 1 Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Christian Medical College, Vellore - India, 2 Nephrology Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore - India, 3 Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Christian Medical College, Vellore India, 4 Biostats Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore - India Background: Genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes are important contributors to inter-individual variability in drug response and can lead to adverse reactions or therapeutic failure. Conclusion: Genotyping an individual for polymorphisms in drugmetabolizing enzyme genes will facilitate individualized treatment. In cases where genotype indicates non-response, early use of alternate drugs will reduce financial burden and risk of adverse reactions. Hemodialysis was the first treatment method for incident (61%) and prevalent (67 %) patients. A very high mortality rate (23 %) was founded mainly due to dialysis insufficiency, A very low school enrollment (45 %) and significant retardation of growth (73 %). Nevertheless, the etiology remains unclear in most patients making the identification of genes newly associated with renal malformation an important objective. Material and methods: To detect the genetic cause in a family affected by renal and extrarenal anomalies, we performed whole-exome sequencing. Gdf6 expression was detected during Xenopus and murine urogenital tract development. A Gdf6 knockout resulted in diminished kidney cell migration in vitro, which was rescued by re-expression of wildtype but not of mutant proteins. In Xenopus embryos, downregulated gdf6 expression resulted in impaired pronephros development. Whole-exome sequencing and in silico filtering of 298 nephropathic genes were combined with reverse phenotyping performed right after genetic diagnosis in all the patients and families. Reverse phenotyping permitted the identification of minor clinical signs of the underlying genetic nephropathy in the patient or the family, confirming the diagnosis and explaining multi-drug resistance. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Hasanuddin University, Makassar Indonesia, 2 Nephrology Division, Pediatric Department, Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University, Malang - Indonesia, 3 Nephrology Division, Pediatric Department, Dr. Soetomo Academic Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University, Surabaya - Indonesia, 4 Hemato-oncology Division, Pediatric Department, Dr.
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L viscera 1; visceral; viscera visceralgia visceroptosis viscerogenic 2; visceral and visceripericardial vitell- or vitello- combining form L vitellus 1; yolk; vitellus vitellin vitellogenesis 2; vitelline and vitellointestinal viti- combining form L, fr. L -vorus; one that eats something specified -vorous adj combining form L -vorus, fr. L -ium; instance of a specified action expiry entreaty inquiry -yl n combining form - Gk hyl wood, matter first used in G benzoyl, lit. But in most cases, dry eyes can be managed successfully, usually resulting in noticeably greater eye comfort, fewer dry eye symptoms, and sometimes sharper vision as well. Dry eye occurs when the eye does not produce tears properly, or when the tears are not of the correct consistency and evaporate too quickly. If left untreated, this condition can lead to pain, ulcers, or scars on the cornea, and some loss of vision. Dry eye can make it more difficult to perform some activities, such as using a computer or reading for an extended period of time, and it can decrease tolerance for dry environments, such as the air inside an airplane. Relatively speaking, the diagnosis and treatment of dry eyes is a new practice that is providing relief to millions of people. Symptoms of Dry Eye There are many signs and symptoms of dry eye, which usually affect both eyes. Forms of Dry Eye Aqueous Dry Eye - occurs when the lacrimal gland does not produce enough of the water component to keep the eyes moist. This results in concentrated tear film (hyperosmolarity) and unstable tear fil, leading to a dry ocular surface. Chronically clogged glands eventually become unable to secrete oil which results in permanent changes in the tear film and dry eyes. Poor or insufficient oil layer may lead to tears evaporating 4 to 16 times faster than normal. There are approximately 50 glands on the upper eyelids and 25 glands on the lower eyelids. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. Each of these layers has to be balanced properly to provide sufficient comfort and visional quality. Examination of dry eye patients requires a unique understanding of the spatial relations and dimensions of the tear film. Oil Layer - the purpose of the oil layer is to maintain tears on the surface of the eye and avoid evaporation. The oil component of the tears is produced by the Meibomian glands that line the perimeter of the eye lash margin. Aqueous (Water) Layer - the aqueous layer makes up the watery layer commonly thought of as tears. It contains water and proteins and is secreted by small glands in the conjunctiva and the larger lacrimal gland. The aqueous layer makes up the majority of the tear volume and is responsible for tear spreading. Mucous Layer - the mucous layer works as an anchor to hold the tear film to the eye. This annoying condition causes irritation, itchiness, redness, and stinging or burning of the eyes. Anterior Blepharitis - affects the outside of the eyelid where your eyelashes are attached. If left untreated, anterior blepharitis can lead to thickened and inwardturned or outward-turned eyelids and even vision problems from in-turned eyelashes damaging the cornea. When meibomian glands become clogged from posterior blepharitis, it can also can cause a stye or chalazion to form. Diagnostic Tools & Tests Traditionally the treatment for dry eye was a trial and error approach to different over-the-counter and prescription lubricating drops, oral medications and nutritional supplements. Some plans include only one of the options below, while others require the patient to commit to a plethora of treatment solutions. While surgical procedures involving the cornea or lacrimal system may be required for severe conditions related to dry eye, there are really only two main categories of treatment for the dry eye symptoms themselves; in-clinic procedures and retail/prescription solutions. After these openings have been plugged, tears can no longer drain away from the eye through these ducts. In this way the tear film stays intact longer on the surface of the eye, relieving dry eye symptoms. This can be accomplished by cauterizing the puncta or plugging it with a small, sterile device. LipiFlow - an automated procedure designed to treat the root cause of Evaporative Dry Eye, blocked Meibomian glands. Opening and clearing these blocked glands can allow them to resume natural production of lipids needed for a healthy tear film. The patented activator fits onto the eye and also over the eyelids and applies precisely controlled heat to the lids to soften hardened meibum. At the same time, the LipiFlow system applies pulsed pressure to the eyelids to open and express clogged meibomian glands, thereby restoring the correct balance of oils in the tear film to relieve dry eye syndrome. In a clinical study of the effectiveness of the procedure, most patients (76 percent) reported improvement of their dry eye symptoms within two weeks, and patients also showed improvement in the quality and quantity of meibomian gland secretions and the duration of time their tear film remained on the eye before evaporating. In some cases, however, it can take a few months for improvements to become apparent. Typically, the beneficial effects of the LipiFlow procedure last one to three years or longer. BlephEx - a painless procedure using a hand held device to very precisely and carefully remove scurf and debris and exfoliate eyelids for patients suffering from blepharitis. Studies have found that supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids can decrease dry eye symptoms. Good sources of omega-3s include cold-water fish such as salmon, sardines, herring and cod. Artificial Tears - or mild cases of dry eyes caused by computer use, reading, schoolwork and other situational causes, the best dry eye treatment may simply be frequent use of artificial tears or other lubricating eye drops. There are many brands of artificial tears that are available without a prescription. Artificial tears and other over-the-counter lubricating eye drops are available in a wide variety of ingredients and viscosity and certain kinds of dry eye symptoms will be relieved differently based on these factors. It includes an agent that reduces inflammation associated with dry eye syndrome and helps your body produce more natural tears to keep your eyes moist, comfortable and healthy. You must use the drops daily for a minimum of 90 days to experience the full benefits of this dry eye treatment. Steroid Eye Drops - Over the past several years, doctors have discovered the importance of inflammation as a cause of dry eyes. Inflammation frequently causes the redness and burning associated with dry eye disease; but in many cases, it may be present without any visible signs or symptoms at all. Artificial tears usually do not adequately address these inflammatory changes and your doctor may recommend steroid eye drops to better manage the underlying inflammation associated with dry eyes. They are often used in conjunction with artificial tears and Restasis, as a complement to these more long-term treatment strategies. Unfortunately, for warm compresses to work well, some researchers say you have to use a compress that can maintain a temperature of 108 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 10 minutes, and the compresses have to be applied for this length of time at least twice a day. Optometric Education: Volume 41 Number 1 Table of Contents Deadline Extended for Upcoming International Optometric Education Theme Edition. Underpinning these changes has been the critical role of international optometric education in supporting and catalyzing this transformation.
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Vigabatrin Neurological indications Treatment of infantile spasms particularly in tuberous sclerosis. Dosing Starting doses and escalation regimen Infantile spasms: 50 mg/kg/24 h increasing if required every 48 h to 100 mg/kg/24 h and then 150 mg/kg/24 h divided in 2 doses. Powder can be dispersed in 10 mL of water and the appropriate volume used to give small doses. Contraindications Pre-existing or potential for visual impairment (particularly visual field impairments). Contraindications Severe gastritis or ulcer, severe hypertension, bacterial endocarditis. Amnion = nickname for a goddess of childbirth: Eileithyia of Amnisus (or Amnias), which was the port of the land of Knossos in Crete; amnion is also Greek for a little lamb; inner of the fetal membranes forming a thin sac around embryo or fetus, and subsequently fusing with chorion. French neurologist; striae of Baillarger are two bands of fibres in grey matter of cerebral cortex running parallel to its surface; cf. Danish mathematician and philosopher, doctor in Basel, anatomist at Cophenhagen; discovered thoracic duct and lymphatic system in 1653; wrote a textbook of anatomy. Sorbonne physiologist; suggested idea of internal secretions and established science of endocrinology; developed concept of constancy of internal environment of body (milieu interne). Kiev anatomist; Betz cells are large pyramidal cells in 5th layer of motor cortex (1874), giving rise to a small number of fibres in the pyramidal tract. Berlin neurologist; developed staining and silver impregnation techniques for histological study of nervous system. Leiden physician; sweat glands; wrote famous textbook Istitutiones medicae (1708). Armenian anatomist; described 52 allegedly discrete areas of human cerebral cortex by transferring results of studies in monkey brain to human. Anatomist at Valencia, histologist at Madrid; shared Nobel Prize in 1906 with Golgi,q. Haematoxylin a basic dye from a South American tree; its oxidation product haematein is used with mordants for histological staining of nucleic acids. Hippocrates and other early anatomists called all fibres "neurons", not distinguishing sinews from peripheral nerves; later Aristotle used term to describe a nerve in the modern sense); cf. Galen, dissecting animals, also thought it erroneously to be present around the internal carotid of man. VirchowRobin spaces = perivascular spaces around arterioles and arteries of central nervous system. Petersburg when the sailors drank the alcohol used as a fixitive and preserving fluid. Schleiden, Matthias 1804-1881 Jena, Dorpat & Franfurt botanist; early supporter of Darwin; plant microscopist and discoverer of the universality of the cell in plant structure (1838), cf. Vidus Vidius (= Guido Guidii) 1500-1569 Paris physician, Pisa philosopher; Vidian nerve = nerve of pterygoid canal (1611). Petersburg anatomist & physiologist, founder of modern embryology; against idea that embryo was preformed; Wolffian duct = mesonephric duct (1759); Wolffian body = mesonephros (1759). Worm, Olaus 1588-1654 Copenhagen classicist & anatomist; Wormian bones = tiny irregular bones in the cranial sutures (also known to ancient anatomists). A Dictionary of Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms from Webster s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged 2002 Webster s Third New International Dictionary is now online visit Gk more at -; not; without achromatic asexual used chiefly with words of Gk or L origin a- before consonants other than h and sometimes even before h, an- before vowels and usu. Gk akantha thorn; animal having such a spine or such or so many spines Cephalacanthus Ctenacanthus in generic names esp. L acutus; sharp-pointed acutifoliate; sharply angled acutiplantar acuto- combining form acute; acute and acuto-grave; acutely acuto-nodose ad- or ac- or af- or ag- or al- or ap- or as- or at- prefix ad- fr. L albumin-, albumen; albumen; albumin albuminoid albuminiferous albuminolysis alco- or alcoo- combining form alcohol; alcohol alcogel alcosol alcoometer ald- or aldo- combining form prob. Gk 1; amnion amniotome 2; amniotic and amnioallantoic amorph- or amorpho- combining form Gk, amorph-, fr. Gk amph more at; both amphophilic amygdal- or amygdalo- combining form L amygdal-, fr. L, Angles 1; English: a; of or belonging to England Anglo-Norman b; of English origin, descent, or culture Anglo-Indian Anglo-Irish 2; English and AngloJapanese Anglo-Russian anguli- or angulo- combining form prob. L angulus angle 1; angle angulometer; angular angulinerved 2; of or belonging to the angular and angulosplenial angusti- combining form prob. L anterior; anterior anteroparietal; anterior and anterolateral; from front to anteroposterior anth- or antho- combining form L anth-, fr. Gk -anth ma akin to Gk anthos flower; eruption; rash enanthema -anthemum n combining form L, fr. Gk anthos flower; organism having or resembling such a flower in generic names in botany Cyclanthus Schizanthus and zoology Oecanthus anti- or ant- or anth- prefix anti- fr. L, appendage, supplement; vermiform appendix appendectomy appendicitis appendicostomy appendotome aqui- also aqua- combining form L aqui-, fr. Gk -arch s, archos more at -; ruler; leader matriarch nomarch -arch adj combining form prob. Gk arch beginning more at -; having such a point or so many points of origin endarch pentarch archae- or archaeo- also archeo- combining form Gk archaio-, fr. Gk arithmos akin to Gk arariskein to fit; number arithmograph arithmomania -arium n suffix, pl -ariums or -aria L, fr. Ascidia ascidium; ascidian ascidiozooid; ascidium ascidiferous -ase n suffix - F, fr. Gk -ast s akin to -ist s -ist; one connected with ecdysiast hypochondriast aster- or astero- combining form Gk, fr. Gk ast r; star in structural and generic names in biology diaster Geaster asthen- or astheno- combining form Gk, fr. Austria 1; Austrian and Austro-Hungarian 2; Austria austrium Austrophobia aut- or auto- combining form Gk, fr. Gk ax n axle, axis 1; axis axophyte 2; axis cylinder axite axodendrite axi- combining form L, axle, axis, fr. Gk bi tikos 1; relating to life; life antibiotic 2; having a specified mode of life aerobiotic necrobiotic bis- combining form L, fr. L brachium 1; arm brachiferous brachiotomy 2; brachial and brachiofacial brachy- combining form Gk, fr. L branchia; gill podobranchia; organ like a gill pulmobranchia brevi- combining form L, fr. Gk br mos bad smell 1; bromine bromhydrate bromoprene 2 now usu bromo-; containing bromine in place of hydrogen in names of organic compounds bromoacetic acid 3 now usu bromo-; containing bromine regarded as replacing hydroxyl or oxygen or as coordinated to a central atom in names of inorganic acids and salts bromoauric acid 4; containing bromine as bromide and sometimes replacing another element or group in names of minerals and salts occurring as minerals bronch- or broncho- combining form prob. Gk kardia 1; heart action or location of a specified type dextrocardia tachycardia 2 a; animal or animals having a specified type of heart Diplocardia Leptocardia b; heart-shaped animal esp. Gk -karpos -carpous; plant having such fruit in generic names Corynocarpus Thysanocarpus case- or caseo- combining form casein; casein casease caseolysis cata- or cat- or cath- prefix Gk kata-, kat-, kath-, fr. Gk -kephalos 1 pl -cephali; cephalic abnormality of a specified type microcephalus hydrocephalus 2 pl -cephali or -cephala; organism having a specified type of head Ichthyocephali Phanerocephala cer- or cero- combining form Gk k r-, k ro-, fr. Gk chi n akin to Gk cheim n winter; snow chionanthus chiolite chionodoxa chir- or chiro- also cheir- or cheiro- combining form L chir-, chiro-, fr. Gk choiros pig akin to L horr re to bristle; pig; piglike animal in generic names in zoology Hydrochoerus chol- or chole- or cholo- combining form Gk chol-, chol -, cholo-, fr. Gk -chordos; having so many strings septichord -chore n combining form - Gk ch rein to withdraw, advance, go, spread akin to Gk ch ros left, bereaved; plant distributed by a specified means or agency zoochore -chorous adj combining form -chory n combining form choreo- also chore- or chorio- combining form choreo-, chore-, fr. Gk klan to break 1; one that breaks or destroys iconoclast biblioclast 2 G -klast, fr. L comicus; comic; comic and comicotragedy comicodidactic con- or cono- combining form Gk k n-, k no-, fr.
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If a piglet is briefly detached at this point from its teat and the teat is milked, milk will squirt out under pressure as it does at farrowing time under the influence of oxytocin but not at other times. In a multiple sow farrowing house, the sound of one sow calling and then feeding her pigs will often cause the other sows to follow suit. Assessment of the sow in the farrowing house If approached quietly in the farrowing house, the sow in recumbency will normally remain lying down. If disturbed or if food is offered she will normally roll into sternal recumbency and get to her feet, her front end rising first. This is usually a bad sign, indicating severe illness requiring urgent assessment and treatment. Having observed the pigs without disturbing them they should now be subjected to closer scrutiny to enable them to be properly and methodically inspected. The points to note, which should include assessment of behaviour and environment mentioned above, are as follows. Sleeping pigs may occasionally show muscle tremors, but these disappear when the pig wakes. One piglet is dead, another thin and malnourished, and several show signs of enteritis. Fitting Together with other signs such as nystagmus and opisthotonos, fitting is seen in cases of meningitis caused by Streptococcus and Haemophilus species. Incoordination this may be seen in bowel oedema where the pig may lose the ability to use its forelimbs. If such cases deteriorate the pig may become unable to balance and will repeatedly roll onto the same side. In foot lameness the pig may frequently attempt to place the affected foot on the ground, but repeatedly snatch it away when it experiences pain. Pruritus Pigs normally rub themselves at intervals, but pruritus with frequent rubbing may be caused by ectoparasites, especially in mange or louse infestation. Abdominal distension this is an ominous sign, especially when seen in anorexic pigs. Note their poor bodily condition and the characteristic dark faecal staining on the perineum and hind legs. Other causes of abdominal distension include ascites (rare in pigs and mostly associated with hepatic cirrhosis), peritonitis and obstruction of the small bowel by ascarid worms. Where castration is practised constant vigilance for scrotal hernias is essential. Failure to detect it can have a fatal consequence if the bowel escapes through the opened hernia. Subcutaneous abscesses these are very common in pigs and are usually associated with bite wounds or other injury, with Arcanobacterium pyogenes being the common bacterial cause. Haematomata these are also usually associated with injury and may later become infected. Lateral deviation of the spine and swelling of the longissimus dorsi muscles (mostly unilateral) this may be seen in cases of acute myopathy associated with vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency. Muscle swelling this may be seen in some forms of the porcine stress syndrome where muscle degeneration or necrosis has occurred. Aural haematomata these affect the pinna of the ear (usually unilaterally) and may become so heavy that they cause a degree of head tilting. Swelling in the prepuce Male pigs normally have a degree of swelling in the prepuce associated with the large preputial diverticulum in this species. Callus formation Especially over the pressure points of the elbow and hock, callus formation may be associated with inadequate bedding and poor hygiene. If the pigs are not anorexic their attention may be distracted by offering a little food whilst the clinical examination is performed. Feeding stalls or weighing crates can be useful to restrain single or groups of pigs. Clinical examination Restraint for examination To be effective and stress-free, the clinical examination must be carried out with minimum restraint of the patient. The needle is inserted at a point halfway between the shoulder joint and the manubrium of the sternum. Azaperone at a dose of 2 mg/kg may be substituted for detomidine in the above combination. Note open mouth breathing, dogsitting position and the expiratory line caused by intense muscular contraction as the pig tries to force air out of its lungs. Sudden movements of the pig backwards or sideways and other members of the group pushing between the clinician and the patient, can result in damage to the thermometer. Occasionally, in all ages of pig from 1 week to several years, multicentric lymphosarcoma is seen, with some or all of the lymph nodes being grossly enlarged, readily visible and palpable. The tendency of the pig to move when the stethoscope is placed on the chest means that in many cases the pulse can only be counted for brief periods of 10 seconds or so, and the pulse rate per minute is calculated from this brief observation. Tickling the pig behind the eye with the finger and very quietly advancing the finger to depress the lower eyelid will allow brief but effective inspection and evaluation of the mucosa. In sows and gilts the vulval lining provides an alternative and easier access to the mucous membranes. Pallor of the mucosae is seen in anaemia, Skin colour this is important in white pigs. Sow showing gross lesions and common sites of sarcoptic mange, louse infestation, ringworm and pityriasis. Generalised thickening of the skin may be seen in the rare conditions of zinc deficiency (parakeratosis) and vitamin B deficiency. Mites are difficult to find in chronic cases where allergy-related skin changes are the dominant feature. Skin texture the skin of the dorsal part of the body is normally thick and immobile. On the ventral sur266 Skin turgor this can only be effectively assessed on the eyelids or on the ventral surface of the body. Skin lesions the raised, diamond-shaped lesions of acute and subacute swine erysipelas may be visible and palpable, especially on the dorsal surface of the neck and over the thoracic walls. Head this is examined methodically noting the following: Shape of the head In ill-thriven pigs, the nose may be very long and the head looks larger than the body. The outside of the pinna should be examined for signs of sarcoptic mange such as crusty pruritic lesions, which are often also on the poll; the proximal ear canal should be examined for evidence of the dark wax also present with this infestation. In very good light it may be possible to see pin-headsized mites moving in this wax. Heart Auscultation of the heart can be difficult other than in quiet or very ill animals. A cardiac apex beat may be palpable in young, thin animals or anaemic animals where cardiac enlargement has occurred. Fluid sounds are occasionally heard in cases of pericarditis and mulberry heart disease. Nose and nostrils Asymmetry or deviation of the nose may be seen in cases of atrophic rhinitis. In many cases, brief contact with the stethoscope on the chest wall is all that is possible. In cases of pleuropneumonia abnormal sounds may also be present in the dorsal areas of the lung. Very Neck this is short and fat, and it is impossible to see or raise the jugular vein. Swellings and oedema around the submandibular lymph nodes and larynx are seen in some cases of anthrax. Nodular swellings may be seen on the neck immediately behind ears caused by reaction to previous subcutaneous injection.
Hamstring muscle tightness in the presence of quadriceps femoris muscle weakness has been associated with anterior knee pain including chondromalacia patellae. In the presence of hamstring tightness, patellofemoral joint compressive forces increase during the swing-through phase of gait or recovery phase of running. Because the quadriceps femoris muscle controls knee flexion during the stance phase of walking or running, weakness can result in increased shock to the ankle and knee. Weakness of the quadriceps femoris muscle places increased stress on the lower leg, resulting, with repetitive exercise, in overuse. Imbalance among gastrocnemius-soleus muscles and weak pretibial muscles, anterior tibialis, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorium longus muscles has been associated with anterior shin splints, especially during repetitive hill running. Additionally, during downhill running, at heel strike, the pretibial muscles contract eccentrically to control ankle plantar flexion and prevent foot-slap. Overactivation of these muscles can occur in the presence of tight antagonists (the gastrocnemius-soleus muscles). The result may be microtrauma and inflammation of the pretibial muscles, tendons, and bony attachments. The external rotators of the glenohumeral joint should be 70% of the strength of the internal rotators in overhead-throwing athletes. In some cases the external rotator strength decreased to 50% of the internal rotator strength. On the basis of clinical observation, the author considers the previous ratio to be pathological and may result in damage to the glenohumeral joint or the rotator cuff muscles. Evidence-Based Clinical Application the capacity of the muscle-tendon unit to resist stretching is directly related to the tension of the muscle: During muscle contraction twice as much force is necessary to cause a rupture than in a relaxed muscle. In addition, the same muscle deficits and imbalances continue and in many cases become worse. The perpetuating factors of muscle damage therefore are the combination of the predisposing and precipitating factors already discussed. To treat muscle damage successfully, the predisposing and precipitating factors must be eliminated or modified. For each patient the rehabilitation specialist must evaluate muscle flexibility and strength. In addition, the clinician must have a thorough understanding of the anatomical and physiological demands of the sport in which the athlete is participating. Furthermore, the clinician must Precipitating Factors of Muscle Damage Poorly conditioned individuals secondary to sedentary lifestyles or athletes who have experienced an injury in the past requiring a period of immobilization are predisposed to muscle imbalances. Furthermore, the injured athlete or the sedentary individual might be more susceptible to precipitating muscle damage. Chapter 6 Overuse Injury and Muscle Damage determine the best type of exercise regimen to take the athlete from rehabilitation back to his or her sport. Although pain and the inability to produce a forceful contraction are the most common symptom of muscle damage, it is not a good indicator of the amount of damage. The only objective means for determining the amount of muscle damage is histological verification, which is limited even with the use of the light or electron microscope. One study showed that downhill running induced eccentric injury as evidenced by plasma troponin-I levels. Lieber and Friden20 hypothesized that excessive strain to the sarcomeres permits extracellular or intracellular membrane disruption that may cause myofibrillar disruption. Inflammation that occurs after injury further degrades the tissue, but prevention of inflammation leads to a long-term loss in muscle function. Faulkner and Brooks21 demonstrated in laboratory mice local damage to muscle fiber through overuse. The extensor digitorum longus muscle of a mouse was activated by stimulation of the peroneal nerve. Contractions were elicited every 4 to 5 seconds over periods of 5 minutes to 30 minutes or for 5 minutes with 5 minutes of rest, repeated three times. The local damage of the muscle fiber was determined by infiltration of phagocytes, reduced muscle spindles, and nerve and artery appearance. The ultrastructural damage of the muscle was not observable with light microscopy. Despite the relationship between the number of damaged fibers and the force deficit, the force deficit at day 3 is about 15% greater than the extent of the muscle damage observed in histological sections. The researchers concluded that the force deficit provides a better estimate of the totality of contractioninduced injury. Although shortening and isometric contractions produced significant fatigue immediately and for several hours after the exercise protocols, there was no evidence of injury at day 3. In comparison the lengthening contraction exercise protocols demonstrated morphological changes of muscle fiber throughout the first 5 days. The changes in muscle fiber included damage to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, actin and myosin filaments, and possibly capillaries. The magnitude of the injury is a function of the duration of the lengthening contraction. Friden and Lieber22 compared different types of muscle contractions in the limb of a rabbit. Following 30 minutes of cyclic passive stretch the force deficit was 13%; following isometric contraction it decreased by 31%; and following eccentric contraction it decreased by 69%. Immediately after a protocol of 75 lengthening contractions the force deficit was measured at 3 and 24 hours. The initial force deficit was 35% immediately after the protocol of eccentric contractions and a maximum force deficit of 55% at day 3. Morgan 23 demonstrated that the stretching of weak sarcomeres beyond the overlap of the myosin and actin filaments resulted in the initial injury to a protein called titin. The titin links the myosin filaments in series contributing to myofibular stability during muscle contraction. Reduction of sarcomeres in series decreases the muscle compliance and changes the length-tension relation of muscle contraction. Concentric contractions have been recently suggested as contributing to a reduction of sarcomeres in series. Significant myofibrillar disruption may occur secondary to a lengthening contraction that may also disrupt the titin molecule. Even an isometric contraction may produce significant myofibrillar disruption if preceded by excessive or unaccustomed eccentric exercises. Specificity of training is important to the development of fiber length and the ability to protect the muscle from excessive damage. Therefore concentric exercises at high velocities are not associated with muscle damage. In contrast, during eccentric or lengthening exercises high forces are sustained and muscle damage is common. The most commonly used markers indicating muscle damage are maximal voluntary contraction force, blood protein assessment, and subjectively determined muscle soreness. Prolonged strength loss after eccentric exercise is considered to be one of the most valid and reliable indirect measures of muscle damage in humans. High force eccentric exercise can often generate up to 50% to 65% loss of force-generating capacity, lasting 1 and 2 weeks after initial damage. Concentric exercise is typically associated with strength loss of 10% to 30% immediately after exercise, with strength returning to baseline within hours after exercise. Muscle strains usually result in a hematoma secondary to rupture of intramuscular blood vessels. The first type of intramuscular hematoma lacks damage to the muscle fascia, which limits the size of the hematoma. The second type of muscle strain results in an intramuscular hematoma when the fascia is ruptured. The patient may not experience pain as long as pressure in the area does not increase. Necrosis/degeneration, inflammation, repair, and scar tissue formation (fibrosis) are necessary for the healing process of muscle to occur. The necrotic area is invaded by small blood vessels, lymphocytes, and macrophages, which perform a wide range of functions in the inflammation process. The most important function of the cells is activation of several growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factors, and platelet-derived growth factors. The growth factors released at the injured site regulate the satellite cells that promote myoblast proliferation and differentiation to advance muscle regeneration and repair. Rest, elevation, and ice are important to control the inflammatory response and prevent further damage to the muscle.
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The lower subscapular nerve (answer c) innervates the teres major muscle and a portion of the subscapularis muscle. The transverse diameter (answer e) of the thoracic cavity increases when contraction of the intercostal muscles also elevates the midportion of the ribs (bucket-handle movement). Contraction of the diaphragm increases the vertical diameter of the thoracic cavity (answer c). Thoracic splanchnic nerves (answer c) arise from preganglionic sympathetic nerves that pass through the thorax to go on to innervate the gastrointestinal tract within the abdomen. Aortic stenosis (often discovered in adults due to a congenital bicuspid aortic valve) produces a jet of blood, which in turn causes the subsequent dilation of the ascending aorta. Secondarily, the left ventricle hypertrophies in size due to the increased resistance of forcing blood through a small valve. Pulmonary valve stenosis (answer b) is unlikely since the pulmonary trunk on this patient is normal. Therefore, pain from the diaphragmatic pleura or peritoneum, as well as from the parietal pericardium, may be referred to dermatomes between C3 and C5, inclusive. Those dermatomes correspond to the clavicular region and the anterior and lateral neck, as well as to the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the shoulder. Cervical cardiac accelerator nerves (answer a) would be sympathetic, generally from T1-5. The vagus (answer b) which is a cranial nerve does not carry referred pain back to the brain. The right intercostal nerve (answer c) may carry referred pain from the parietal pleura to the chest wall. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve (answer e) is a branch of the vagus and does not carry referred pain to the brain. In addition, there may be compression of the brachial artery, the sympathetic chain, and recurrent laryngeal nerve with attendant deficits. An aneurysm of the aortic arch (answer c) could reduce pulse pressures as the great vessels are occluded, but it could not explain the venous congestion. Thoracic duct blockage in the posterior mediastinum (answer e) would be unlikely to affect only the right arm. Smaller objects usually lodge in the right inferior lobar bronchus [not superior (answer e)] because the right mainstem (primary) bronchus is generally more vertical in its course than the left (answers b and d) and of greater diameter. In addition, the takeoff angle of the right lower lobe bronchus is less acute than that of the right middle lobe, thereby continuing in the general direction of both the right mainstem bronchus and trachea. Blockage of the airway will produce absence of breath sounds within the lobe and eventual atelectasis, collapse. Since the sampling is being performed at the midaxillary line you would pass through all three layers of muscles. Further anteriorly, the external intercostal muscle turns membranous, while near the transverse process of the ribs the innermost intercostal muscle becomes membranous (See Moore and Dalley p 97). Normally emboli that form in the blood Thorax Answers 481 develop within the venous circulatory system, especially with stasis of blood flow. During pregnancy, the weight of the fetus on the inferior vena cavatends to increase the chances of forming emboli. In a normal circulatory system those venous emboli become trapped in the first capillary bed, in the lungs, where they form small pulmonary emboli, which in most young, healthy people are a minor health risk. When an atrial septal defect is present, systemic venous emboli may pass from the right to the left atria, thus by-passing the lung capillary network and move into the brain capillary bed, where even small emboli can cause strokes. There are now "clamshell" devices that can be introduced via catherization that can be inserted to fill the atrial septal defect, thus eliminating the need for open-heart surgery. Although the segmental bronchus and artery tend to be centrally located (answer c), the veins do not accompany the arteries, but tend to be located subpleurally and between bronchopulmonary segments. Indeed, at surgery the intersegmental veins are useful in defining intersegmental planes. Bronchopulmonary segments, the anatomic and functional units of the lung, are roughly pyramidal in shape, have apices directed toward the hilum of the lung (answer a), and are separated from each other by connective tissue septa. Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by one tertiary or segmental bronchus (answer d), along with a branch of the pulmonary artery. The parietal pleura (answer b) only covers the ends of the bronchopulmonary segments. The lucidity of the left pleural cavity with the lack of pulmonary vessels indicates that the left lung has collapsed into a small, dense mass adjacent to the mediastinum. Such a nontraumatic pneumothorax may result from the rupture of a pulmonary bleb, especially in a young person. There is no pleural fluid level indicative of hemothorax, and the near symmetry of the domes of the two hemidiaphragms on inspiration indicates normal function of the phrenic nerves. The pleural cavities normally extend superior to the first rib into the base of the neck (answer a). The heart, measuring less than one-half of 482 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology the chest diameter, is of normal size (answer b), but is shifted to the right. Both the pulmonary trunk (answer d) and the left ventricle (answer e) would be inferior to the arrow on the left heart border. As blood collects, lung tissue is displaced and cannot expand fully, thereby impairing ventilation. A puncture wound often produces a flailing chest [(answer a) moving inward as the rest of the thoracic cage expands during inspiration]. Paralysis of the right hemidiaphragm (answer d) would result in the diaphragm becoming stationary near its normal expiration height. Since the lung is collapsed toward the hilum the exact level tends not to be so important since the lung has pull cranial and medial. The needle is usually inserted just below the level at which percussive dullness occurs (if hemothorax). The apex of the lung (answer a) is close to the brachial plexus and subclavian vessels and thus is not used. The costomediastinal recess on the left, adjacent to the xiphoid process (answer b) is used for pericardiocentesis. The midclavicular line (answers c and e) is not used because tubes placed this far anteriorly tend to be in the way of the patient. The posterior intercostal arteries anastomose with the anterior intercostal arteries, which arise from the internal thoracic artery. Laterally, the intercostal neurovascular bundle lies in the costal groove along the internal surface of the inferior border of each rib and between the innermost intercostal and internal intercostal muscles (answers c and e). Indeed, scalloping of the inferior edge of the rib is a radiographic indication of increased collateral Thorax Answers 483 circulation through the intercostal arteries that results from a circulatory deficit elsewhere. Just as a subcostal location offers protection to the intercostal neurovascular bundle, fracture of a rib may involve tearing of these structures. The intercostal neurovascular bundle components give off a smaller accessory bundle, which lies adjacent to the upper border of the ribs. Thoracocentesis usually is performed adjacent to the upper border of the ribs (answer a) to avoid the main intercostal neurovascular bundle. Deep to the posterior intercostal membrane (answer d) is not anatomically relevant. The blood supply to the right side of the heart (answer a) is primarily derived from the right and left coronary arteries derived from the truncus arteriosus. The face (answer b) and thyroid gland (answer c) receive blood primarily from the facial and superior thyroid arteries, respectively. These are branches of the common and external carotid arteries which, in turn, are derivatives of the second and third aortic arch arteries. The upper digestive tract (answer e) is supplied by the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, derivatives of the vitelline arteries. Coronary occlusions involving the right coronary artery are, therefore, often accompanied by rhythm disturbances. The right marginal (answer d) is not involved in supplying blood to the sinoatrial node. While it is true that the posterior interventricular artery (answer e) can receive blood mainly from either the right or left coronary arteries (so called right or left "dominant" patterns) the sinoatrial artery usually does not arise from this region. Both the superior (answer e) and inferior 484 Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology (answer a) vena cava bring venous blood to in the right atrium.
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If only skin deep, the meaning of these codes would overlap with codes for skin regions. In the absence of a clear use case for these codes, it is also interesting to see what use has been made of them in the logic-based definitions. Many of those that are used (as of 20060131) also have corresponding codes that do not contain the surface region designation, and this creates inconsistency in modeling, with some using x structure and others using x surface region. Where the x structure codes do not currently exist, they will be created, without the surface region phrase, which is ambiguous. It is therefore not a kind of bone (organ), but it is a kind of bone structure, and is part of the shoulder region. Intertarsal joint structure (synonym: "tarsal joint") : this is a structure that is part of a group of joints forming articulations between the seven bones of the tarsus. The talocalcaneonavicular joint  is the articulation between the talus and the other bones of the tarsus, and is thus assumed to be what is meant by the rarely-used term "talotarsal joint". Dislocations of the subtalar joint will ordinarily also involve the talonavicular joint . The subtalar and talonavicular joints taken together constitute the talocalcaneonavicular joint. In general English usage, "arm" can mean the upper limb, but it can also mean the upper arm, i. In all hierarchies, including disorders, procedures, anatomy, and others, the fully specified name should not rely on the word "arm" or the word "leg" alone to designate the anatomy being referenced. Stedmans definition of lower leg is "The segment of the inferior limb between the knee and the ankle". We found no reproducible distinction, and have retired base of tongue  as a duplicate of root of tongue. The root of the tongue is the posterior third, the dorsal surface of which forms the anterior wall of the oropharynx. The nerves and vessels that supply the intrinsic muscles of the tongue traverse the root of the tongue. There is no ventral surface of the posterior third of the tongue, so the ventral surface of the anterior two thirds is the same as the ventral surface, which is the inferior surface. The fold has two surfaces, one forming part of the wall of the supraglottic larynx, the other forming part of the wall of the hypopharynx (the "food tube" behind the larynx, leading to the esophagus). Is the "hypopharyngeal aspect of the interarytenoid fold " a part of the hypopharynx, the larynx, or both? A tumor of this site should be categorized as a tumor of the hypopharynx, and not as a tumor of the larynx, but the interarytenoid fold  is considered part of the larynx. Given these two facts, we do not give a part-of Relationship between the hypopharyngeal aspect of the interarytenoid fold and the interarytenoid fold. This emphasizes the fact that we determine how to model anatomical entities based on the way that model causes disorders and procedures to be organized, not based on a simple reading of the term names. The lateral regions are therefore bounded above by a plane that is inferior to the ribs. In contrast, the flank is the lateral region of the abdomen bounded above by the ribs. Thus some parts of the hypochondriac regions, which are superior to the transpyloric plane but inferior to the ribs, would be considered also part of the flank. 0 Its referents include structures in the layers deeper than the surface epithelium, but exclude any non-skin-associated mucosal epithelium, such as bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sites of squamous cell neoplasms. The "skin and/or surface epithelium" concept was created to represent the sites of these neoplasms. It is not intended to subsume all mucosal structures, which are under Mucous membrane structure (body structure). Thus skin of finger is-a skin of hand, is-a Skin structure of upper extremity, is-a "skin region". We have refrained from adding the word "region" to all of these names, since it could be confusing without a clear distinction between the entire region and some subregion. Organs include individual bones, joints, muscles, arteries, veins, lymph vessels, nerves, etc. In most cases, these have been interpreted to be entities in the subsumption hierarchy (is-a hierarchy) of the particular organ type, that is, they are kinds of organ. When we also need a concept that means the collection of organs (rather than an organ in the collection), we have created another entity (code) that is a kind of organ system subdivision. The default has been to interpret codes as denoting organs rather than organ system subdivisions. Examples: Organ Vertebra (bone of vertebral column) Cervical vertebra Third cervical vertebra Bone of skull Bone of thoracic cage Rib Third rib Right third rib Quadriceps femoris muscle Quadriceps femoris muscle, left Vastus medialis muscle 6. However, a cell is not necessarily part of tissue, and tissue is not necessarily part of a named organ. In particular, the terms for the gastrointestinal, alimentary, genitourinary, genital, urinary, respiratory, biliary, lymphatic, lymphoid, immune, reticuloendothelial, andhematopoietic systems of the body may have multiple interpretations. We have (arbitrarily) made the following definitions and distinctions in order to achieve internal consistency of the terminology. We recognize that it may not be possible to get universal consensus regarding the names that should be used for each of these codes. Urinary system includes the prostatic urethra (since it is a male urinary outflow structure) but excludes other parts of the prostate (and the prostate as a whole) and also excludes the seminal vesicles (see lower urinary tract). Unless clearly specified otherwise, urinary tract and urinary system are considered synonyms, and terms that include the phrases are interchangeable. For example, computed tomography of urinary tract is the same as computed tomography of urinary system. Broad categories that are intended to exclude the kidney should specifically use the term urinary tract proper (see next). Examples include operation on urinary tract proper and disease of urinary tract proper. Urinary tract proper: the urinary tract proper includes the organs involved in the secretion of urine but excludes the kidney itself; it includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a fairly subtle distinction from urinary system, but may be useful for categorizing disorders affecting the flow of urine (as opposed to its formation), such as urinary tract obstruction, and as the site of tubular structures lined with urothelium. Because urinary tract is ordinarily used as a synonym of urinary system, we have added the word proper to distinguish this more specific meaning (which excludes the non-collecting parts of the kidney) from the broader meaning. Upper urinary tract: the upper urinary tract is the urinary system above the junction of ureter with the bladder, and consists of the kidneys and ureters. Since upper urinary tract infections include kidney infection, the upper urinary tract must include the kidney. Upper urinary tract proper: the upper urinary tract proper is the part of the urinary tract proper above the junction of the ureter with the bladder. Lower urinary tract: the lower urinary tract is the urinary system below the junction of the ureter with the bladder. The male and female specific components are located under male urinary outflow structure and female urinary outflow structure, respectively. Genitourinary system: the genitourinary system includes the entire urinary system as well as the genital system. Genital system: the genital system is comprised of both internal genital organs and external genitalia. Genital tract is defined only for the female: the female genital tract is comprised of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and vulva. Digestive system: includes the digestive tract as well as the associated organs of digestion, including tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, exocrine pancreas, gallbladder and biliary tract. The first would more properly be named the esophago-gastrointestinal tract, since the esophagus is ordinarily included. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract that includes the esophagus, but obviously not part of the more restricted stomach-intestine entity. It includes the lymph nodes (lymph node structure 59441001) and lymphatics (structure of lymphatic vessel 83555006). It supports the categorization of findings, disorders and procedures that relate to the flow of lymph. Lymphoid system (Lymphoid system structure ): is conceptually the set of structures made up of aggregates of lymphoid cells.
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The survey team should select 30 villages from the district (or other target population) of interest at random and follow up with at least seven randomly selected households in each, asking the family members if they took Zithromax. Coverage surveys can be used for more than just estimating the proportion of people who received treatment; they can be used to determine why treatment was not taken, allowing for immediate or longer-term remedial action if needed. If coverage was low because people did not wish to participate at the time a long-term process of sensitisation and health education can be planned to improve compliance the following year. Coverage surveys also offer a valuable platform for research, and other important questions regarding the health knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population can be included. The prevention of sight loss from microbial keratitis requires action at different stages: to prevent microbial keratitis, recognise it, refer patients rapidly and treat them effectively. A slit lamp certainly helps in the assessment of microbial keratitis; however, many of the signs can be detected using a torch (with or without a blue filter), a pair of magnifying loupes and some fluorescein for corneal staining. It is therefore realistic to train and equip health workers to identify cases of microbial keratitis in a primary care setting. The pattern of organisms that cause infections and their sensitivity to antibacterial or antifungal agents can vary significantly between regions. Therefore, it is very important to have an understanding of the typical causative organisms in different regions and their usual antibiotic sensitivity profile to guide treatment, particularly if microbiology services are generally limited. Which of the following are helpful in identifying the type of organism causing microbial keratitis infection? We hope that you will also discuss the questions with your colleagues and other members of the eye care team, perhaps in a journal club. Corneal scar A 35-year-old man in an equatorial African country presents with a two-week history of gradually progressive pain, redness and reduced vision (6/60) in the left eye. The problem began after the left eye was scratched by a maize leaf while he was harvesting. On microscopy this was diagnosed as a case of filamentary fungal microbial keratitis. There was a history consistent with traumatic corneal abrasion with vegetable matter (maize leaf), which is a likely source of fungal infection. By contrast, significant bacterial microbial keratitis tends to have a more rapid or acute course. There is a large white area of inflammatory infiltrate in the cornea that on examination has a slightly raised profile, with an irregular or feathery superior and nasal edge and there are signs of intraocular inflammation, with a small hypopyon (pus collection in the anterior chamber). Management of fungal microbial keratitis involves intensive treatment with topical antifungal drops, of which natamycin 5% appears to be the most effective for filamentary fungi. If there is deep corneal or intraocular involvement, oral antifungal medication may be a useful addition to topical treatment. If one does not have a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of a fungal aetiology, then it is also advisable to treat with broad-spectrum topical or sub-conjunctival antibiotics. Pupil dilation with atropine will help reduce pain and the risk of adhesions between the iris and lens. There is a need for more trained eye staff to carry out high-quality and cost-effective surgery in the hardest-to-reach places. The fourth edition of this classic text is an invaluable aid to anyone wanting to know how to tackle cataract, glaucoma and lid surgery. The fourth edition has an expanded section on the principles of learning surgical skills from the novice stage to the competent eye surgeon. Phacoemulsification is quite rightly put on the back burner whilst small incision cataract surgery is given the attention it deserves. Hopefully these will not appear in the fifth edition that will inevitably follow in years to come. Tel: +254 20 418 32 39 Kilimanjaro Centre for Community Ophthalmology International Visit Careful preparation, as described in this expert guide, along with hard work, will dramatically enhance your probability of success. Covered are all aspects of the test and preparation procedures that you will require throughout the process. To some extent, you have already gradually obtained these abilities over the length of your academic career. However, what you probably have not yet become familiar with is the capability to use these abilities for the purpose of maximizing performance within the complex and profound environment of a standardized, skills-based examination. What this means to you, is that it has become possible for quality practice tests to be produced, and if you should take enough of these tests, in addition to learning the correct strategies, you will be able to prepare for the test in an effective manner. General Strategies Strategy 1: Understanding the Intimidation the test writers will generally choose some material on the exam that will be completely foreign to most test takers. Therefore, the passage that you will face on the test may almost seem out of context and as though it begins in the middle of a medical process. Just remember that the questions themselves will contain all the information necessary to choose a correct answer. It will take practice to determine what is the optimal rate at which you can read fast and yet absorb and comprehend the information. This is true for both the flyover that you should initially conduct and then the subsequent reading you will have to do as you go through and begin focusing on a specific question. However, on the flyover, you are looking for only a surface level knowledge and are not trying to comprehend the minutia of details that will be contained in the question. With practice, you will find the pace that you should maintain on the test while answering the questions. The two extremes you want to avoid are the dumbfounded mode, in which you are lip reading every word individually and mouthing each word as though in a stupor, and the overwhelmed mode, where you are panicked and are buzzing back and forth through the question in a frenzy and not comprehending anything. If you spent hours on each word and memorized the question, you would have maximum comprehension. The test you are taking is timed, and you cannot afford to spend too much time on any one question. You feel that if you just spent one more minute on the problem, that you would be able to figure the right answer out and decide between the two. You can easily get so absorbed in that problem that you loose track of time, get off track and end up spending the rest of the test playing catch up because of all the wasted time, which may leave you rattled and cause you to miss even more questions that you would have otherwise. Therefore, unless you will only be satisfied with a perfect score and your abilities are in the top. When you are going through the answer choices and one jumps out for being factually correct, watch out. Strategy 5: Extraneous Information Some answer choices will seem to fit in and answer the question being asked. Does the answer choice actually match the question, or is it based on extraneous information contained in the question. All of the other answer choices have a more definite sense about them, implying a more precise answer choice without wiggle room that is often wrong. Strategy 7: Using Common Sense the questions on the test are not intended to be trick questions. Therefore, most of the answer choices will have a sense of normalcy about them that may be fairly obvious and could be answered simply by using common sense. Test takers will get thrown off by the new information and if it seems like it might be related, they could choose that answer choice incorrectly. It is hard for test writers to resist making one of the wrong answer choices with the same wording, but changing one word to make it the direct opposite in meaning. Causes: Obstructive sleep apnea Seizures Cardiac Arrhythmias Brain injury Nervous system dysfunction Lung surgery Causes: Cancer Lung abscesses Atelectasis Emphysema Pneumothorax Tumors Bronchiectasis Drug overdose Prematurity Bronchospasm Encephalitis Choking Ketoacidosis Aspirin overdose Anxiety Pneumonia: viruses the primary cause in young children, bacteria the primary cause in adults. General Components and Structure the circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, blood and lymphatics.
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The reproductive information and history available for each animal will to some extent direct the rectal and other examinations, to provide the detailed assessment required at that time. Thus in the recently calved cow rectal examination will reveal how well the uterus has involuted. At 40 to 82 days postcalving, palpation of the ovaries should indicate whether the ovaries are active and in 130 Clinical Examination of the Female Genital System with the fingers on the rectal wall muscular tension is restored and flatus is expelled. Position of the female genital tract In heifers and young cows the whole genital tract may be palpable lying on the pelvic floor. This may be done by hooking a finger over the intercornual ligament or by using the hand to scoop the anterior parts of the genital tract back into the pelvis. Once retracted, the uterus is held in place by gentle manual pressure before being examined and then released to slip back over the pelvic brim. The artery arises from the internal iliac artery shortly after this vessel leaves the aorta. By the second half of pregnancy it may be palpated 5 to 10 cm anterior to the wing of the ilium. The blood flow through the middle uterine artery increases greatly as pregnancy progresses. The internal iliac artery is relatively immobile and is found just anterior to the wing of the ilium. The pudendal artery is palpable in the wall of the pelvic canal 10 cm anterior to the anus. The bony limits of the pelvis can be readily identified as firm immobile structures. The cervix is usually readily found and the other parts of the tract can be identified from that point. In these animals, where the entire genital tract is within the pelvis, the cervix is found on the pelvic floor approximately half way between the caudal border of the pubis and the pelvic brim cranially. The cervix is much firmer than adjacent soft tissues and can be moved laterally to a limited extent. Uterus this is located by moving the hand forCervix this is found close to the midline of the pelvic floor. Retraction may be impossible in pregnant animals or in those in which uterine adhesions are present. The uterine horns are coiled and their anterior extremities are not directly palpable. Later on as fetal size and uterine fluid content increase the tone of the uterine wall also increases the short uterine body is palpable as a cylindrical structure just in front of but much softer and slightly wider than the cervix. In non-pregnant animals the two uterine horns should normally be approximately the same size (2 to 3 cm wide). A visible vaginal discharge may be present and the uterus may be found to be enlarged and fluid filled on rectal examination. Large amounts of purulent material are present in the uterus in cases of pyometra but the animal rarely shows signs of systemic illness. In the serious disease acute septic metritis the uterine wall may be hard and occasionally emphysematous on rectal examination. An irregular area on the uterine wall may be palpated per rectum and can be further evaluated by ultrasonography. At this stage they are 3 to 4 cm in diameter, increasing to 6 to 8 cm towards the end of pregnancy. They are initially quite close together but later, as allantoic fluid volume increases, they move further apart. In the last few days of pregnancy the feet of the calf often enter the pelvis in preparation for birth. Digital pressure exerted in a downward and anterior direction on the broad ligament will usually cause the ovary to move back into a palpable position. The cow has a mature follicle on her left ovary and the regressing corpus luteum from the previous cycle on her right ovary. The ovaries are firmer than adjacent tissues and one, currently the more active ovary, is larger than the other. As much of the ovarian surface as possible is explored, testing for shape and consistency. Ovarian follicles are fluid filled and readily compressible, with a smooth surface often rising just above the ovarian surface. More than one follicle may be present, but as oestrus approaches a single follicle may become dominant and grow faster than the others. Immediately after ovulation a small depression may be palpated at the site of ovulation. Corpora lutea project from the ovarian surface and are firm and non-compressible to the touch. It hardens with age and sinks back into the ovarian stroma but may still be palpable as a small corpus albicans after it ceases to be active. Ovulation may occur sequentially on the same ovary or alternate between the two ovaries. A further rectal examination should be made 10 to 14 days later to confirm or refute the absence of cyclical ovarian activity. Further evaluation of the ovaries by ultrasonography and a plasma or milk progesterone profile of the patient are extremely useful in confirming the physiological state of the ovaries. Cystic ovarian disease Ovarian cysts are very common in dairy cattle and can be readily diagnosed on rectal examination. In most cases a single ovary is involved, but occasionally bilateral cysts are seen. If they become inflamed and obstructed, for example in salpingitis, they may become enlarged, thickened and sometimes more readily palpable. Ultrasonographic examination of the genital tract this technique has become an increasingly important part of the gynaecological examination of cattle. The brightness mode (B mode) scanner produces an image compounded from the reflection of ultrasonic waves directed by the probe into the tissue to be investigated. Water does not reflect ultrasound (it is said to be non-echogenic) and is seen as a black image on the screen. Twins may also be identified and sexing of fetuses is possible by a skilled operator using a high quality scanner. It is advisable to check by palpation and scan that the animal has maintained pregnancy at 6 to 10 weeks. Clear non-echogenic amniotic fluid with evidence of fetal viability suggests a healthy pregnancy. In later pregnancy the fetus or its fluids are clearly demonstrable using ultrasound. The presence of cotyledons involving the uterine wall and the chorioallantois can also be clearly demonstrated from 90 days onwards. The ovary is secured per rectum and is carefully brought to the probe for evaluation. Ultrasound is also used in the diagnosis of a number of pathological conditions of the female genital tract which are discussed below. Perivaginal haematomata caused by calving injuries may cause distortion of the vaginal wall and reduce the size of the vaginal lumen. Their presence can be readily confirmed by rectal or vaginal ultrasonography when the typical segmented appearance of a haematoma can be confirmed. The external urethral orifice can be seen in the vaginal floor over the pubic bones. Vaginal contents the small clitoris may be seen on the ventral floor of the caudal vagina. In freemartins the clitoris may be prominent, occasionally surrounded by a small number of long hairs. The vagina is usually severely shortened (<5 cm) in freemartins and there is no cervix.
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Calcitonin aids in lowering blood calcium levels. As students dissect out the arteries and veins, caution them to avoid damaging other organs that will be studied in later exercises. If time is limited, the circulatory system may be studied in conjunction with the study of individual systems rather than as a separate exercise. If desired by the instructor, a previously dissected animal may be put on demonstration. If the specimen has been injected, frequently the right common carotid artery is damaged; therefore, tracing the common carotid artery is more easily done by following the left common carotid artery. Answers to Activity Questions Activity 1: Dissecting the Heart and Major Blood Vessels Related to the Heart (pp. In both humans and rats: subclavian artery/vein to axillary artery/vein to brachial artery and basilica vein. What differences did you observe between the origin of the common carotid arteries in the rat and in the human? The common carotid arteries originate from the same vessels in both humans and rats. The right common carotid originates from the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid is the second branch off the aorta. How does the venous drainage from the head and neck to the heart differ between humans and rats? Rats have two cranial venae cavae draining the right and left sides of the head and forelimbs, while humans have a single superior vena cava draining the head and upper limbs. How do the relative sizes of the external and internal jugular veins differ in the human and the rat? In humans, the internal jugular vein is larger than the external jugular, while in rats, the reverse is the case. The hepatic portal system has two venous components, one draining the digestive tract leading to the liver and the second draining the liver and connecting to the caudal or inferior vena cava. Answers to Activity Questions Activity 1: Identifying Cranial Respiratory Structures (pp. Animals such as birds have a choana, which is a median fissure in the palate that connects the oropharynx to the nasal cavity. The lungs in the rat are divided into five lobes, with four lobes on the right side and one on the left. Air coming past the epiglottis causes it to rise and swallowed material tends to enter the larynx and "go down the wrong tube. What additional cartilages are found in the human larynx that are not found in the rat? Any constriction of the trachea or bronchial tree will restrict the amount of air that can be passed through the passageways. The diaphragm seals off the thorax from the abdominal cavity, allowing the lungs to expand. As the diaphragm con stricts, it allows air to be taken in, without using intercostal muscles to inhale. Set out water bottles for flushing the intestines, and hand lenses or dissecting microscopes. In the rat, the large intestine will have a very different arrangement from that in the human. Answers to Activity Questions Activity 1: Identifying Digestive Components of the Head and Neck (pp. The soft palate closes off access to the nasal cavity, preventing material from entering it during swallowing. Sharp incisors and, in humans, pointed ca nines allow biting and removal of material. Rats have a single circumvallate papilla in the central, most posterior portion of the tongue, while humans have an inverted V-shaped line of circumvallate papillae in the same region. The filiform papillae cells of rats are keratinized and angle posteriorly. The fungiform papillae of rats tend to be found between the molars in the mouth, while they cover the entire surface of the tongue in humans. Remind the students that they are responsible for knowing both the male and the female urinary systems. Blood vessels can be seen running along the border between the cortex and medulla. The medulla contains inverted, blunted pyramids that empty into funnel-like structures called calyces. Urine is a concentrated form of the filtrate, with needed material and water removed. Remove nitrogenous wastes, maintain water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, and contribute to the control of blood pressure. What two anatomical adaptations are present in the bladder to facilitate expansion? Folds in the bladder wall and an easily stretched lining, transitional epithelium, allow for expansion during filling. How does the site of urethral emptying in the female rat differ from its termination point in the human female? Both empty to the exterior and do not join with the vagina, as they do in other species. Remind students that they are responsible for information from both male and female dissections. Students must cut through the pubic region of the pelvis to complete the dissection. Answers to Activity Questions Activity 1: Identifying Organs of the Male Reproductive System of the Rat (pp. The cortex of the ovary has cuboidal epithelial cells on its surface, called the germinal epithelium. The layers include dense connective tissue called the tunica albuginea and follicles, each containing an immature egg. In humans, the clitoris is anterior to the urethra and hooded by skin folds of the anterior labia minora. Dissection Review Vas deferens, spermatic artery and vein, lymphatics, and several nerves. The prostate gland in the rat is composed of two parts that fuse and encircle the urethra, while in humans, the prostate is a single gland. Some enter the fallopian tubes, some are lost. The uterus of a rat is shaped like a capital Y (bipartite or bicornuate), but with elongated arms. Two separate tubes or horns of the organ extend from the short fallopian tubes to the uterine body in the mid-ventral area of the pelvic region. Each tube is capable of carrying multiple offspring, enabling the rat to have a litter with each pregnancy. Occasionally, data in the Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability module will appear with "#" symbols next to numbers.