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Treatment should continue for at least 14 days or longer, depending on patient condition. There is the risk of spore dormancy in the lungs in people with bioterrorism-associated cutaneous or systemic anthrax or people who were exposed to other sources of aerosolized spores. In these cases, the antimicrobial regimen tion of vaccine (see Control Measures); antimicrobial drug options are the same as those used for treatment of life-threatening anthrax infections in children until antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are known. Tetracycline-based antimicrobial agents, including doxycycline, may cause permanent tooth discoloration for children younger than 8 years 1 nc. Although no prospective data exist on staining of teeth in children younger than 8 years taking a tion outweigh the potential risks of injury to teeth. Supportive tes drainage is critical if effusions exist, because drainage appears to be associated with improved survival. Autopsies performed on patients with systemic anthrax require special precautions. Within 48 hours of exposure to B anthracis spores, public health authorities plan to provide a 10-day course of antimicrobial prophylaxis to the local population, including children likely to have been exposed to spores. People with medical contraindications to intramuscular administration (eg, people with coagulation disorders) may receive the vaccine by subcutaneous administration. Because of intrinsic resistance, cephalosporins and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole should not be used for prophylaxis. Although most infections are subclinical, symptomatic illness usually manifests as 1 of 3 primary clinical syndromes: generalized febrile illness, Generalized febrile illness. Some patients might have relapse of rheumatologic symptoms (polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, tenosynovitis) in the months following acute illness. Studies report variable proportions of patients with persistent joint pains for months to years. Many arboviruses cause neuroinvasive diseases, including prodrome similar to the systemic febrile illness followed by neurologic symptoms. The term outcome of the illness vary by etiologic agent and the underlying characteristics of the host, such as age, immune status, and preexisting medical condition. Clinical Manifestations for Select Domestic and International Arboviral Diseases Virus Domestic Chikungunya Colorado tick fever Dengue La Crosse Powassan St. For other arboviruses, humans usually do not develop a sustained or high enough level of viremia to infect biting arthropod vectors. Direct person-to-person spread of arboviruses can occur through blood transfusion, organ transsure to some arboviruses has occurred rarely in laboratory and occupational settings. One notable exception is La Crosse virus infection, for which children are at highest risk of severe neurologic disease and disease but high case-fatality rate (40%) across all age groups. It has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean, and local transmission has occurred recently of suspected chikungunya have been reported in the Americas. Chikungunya virus primarily is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes, predominantly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus chikungunya virus during epidemic periods. Bloodborne transmission is possible; cases have been documented among laboratory personnel handling infected blood and a health care mented mostly during the second trimester. Longer incubation periods can occur in immunocompromised people and for tickborne viruses, such as tickborne encephalitis and Powassan viruses. A plaque-reduction neutralcriminate between cross-reacting antibodies in primary arboviral infections. For some arboviral infections (eg, Colorado tick fever), the immune of illness and neutralizing antibodies taking up to a month to develop. Yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine produced in embryonic chicken eggs and, thus, is contraindicated in people who have an allergic reaction to eggs or chicken proteins and in people who are immunocompromised. Pregnancy and breastfeeding are precautions to yellow fever vaccine administration, because rare cases of in utero or breastfeeding transmission of the vaccine virus have been documented. Whenever possible, pregnant and breastfeeding women should defer travel to areas where yellow fever is endemic. All travelshould use personal protective measures to reduce the risk of mosquito bites. For adults, a booster dose may be given at 1 year or longer after the primary the need for a booster dose in children, the response to a booster dose administered more than Other Arboviral Vaccines. An inactivated vaccine for tickborne encephalitis virus is licensed viruses, but are used primarily to protect laboratory workers and other people with occupational exposure to these viruses and are not available for public use. In almost half of all reported cases, a maculopapular or scarlatiniform exanthem is present, beginning on the extensor surfaces of the distal extremities, spreading centripetally to the chest and back, and sparing the face, palms, develops 1 to 4 days after onset of sore throat, although cases have been reported with membranous pharyngitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia; and skin and soft tissue infections, including chronic ulceration, cellulitis, paronychia, and wound infection, have been attributed to A haemolyticum. Invasive infections, including septicemia, peritonsillar abscess, Lemierre syndrome, brain abscess, orbital cellulitis, meningitis, endocarditis, pyogenic arthritis, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and pyothorax have been reported. Pharyngitis occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults and is very unusual in young children. Although long-term pharyngeal carriage with A haemolyticum has been described after an episode of acute pharyngitis, isolation of the bacterium from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic people is rare. Two biotypes of A haemolyticum rough biotype predominates in respiratory tract infections, and a smooth biotype is most commonly associated with skin and soft-tissue infections. A haemolyticum generally is susceptible in vitro to azithromycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, and tetracycline. Failures in treatment of pharyngitis with In rare cases of disseminated infection, susceptibility tests should be performed. During the larval migratory phase, an acute transient pneumointestinal obstruction has been associated with heavy infections. Children are prone to this complication because of the small diameter of the intestinal lumen and their propensity to acquire large worm burdens. Adult worms can be stimulated to migrate by stressful conditions (eg, fever, illness, or anesthesia) and by some anthelmintic drugs. Infection with A lumbricoides is most common in resource-limited countries, including rural and urban communities characterized by of large numbers of ova. Female worms are longer than male worms and can measure the incubation period (interval between ingestion of eggs and development of egg-laying adults) is approximately 8 weeks. Adult worms may be detected by computed tomographic scan of the abdomen or by ultrasonographic examination of the biliary tree. Although widely accepted for treatment of ascariasis, albendazole is not labeled for this indication. Ivermectin and nitazoxanide also are not labeled for use for treatment of ascariasis. The safety of ivermectin in children weighing less than Conservative management of small bowel obstruction, including nasogastric suction causes worms to be paralyzed, allows them to be eliminated in stool, and may relieve intestinal obstruction caused by heavy worm burden. The hallmark of invasive aspergillosis is angioinvasion with resulting thrombosis, dissemination to other organs, and occasionally erosion of the blood vessel wall with catastrophic hemorrhage. Aspergillosis in patients with chronic granulomatous disease rarely displays angioinvasion. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a hypersensitivity lung disease that manifests as episodic wheezing, expectoration of brown mucus plugs, low-grade fever, eosinoAllergic sinusitis is a far less common allergic response to colonization by Aspergillus species than is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Allergic sinusitis occurs in children with nasal polyps or previous episodes of sinusitis or in children who have undergone sinus surgery. Incidence of disease in stem cell transplant recipients is highest during periods of neutropenia or during treatment for graft-versus-host disease. In solid organ transplant recipients, the risk is highest Disease has followed use of contaminated marijuana in the immunocompromised host. Cutaneous aspergillosis occurs less frequently and usually involves sites of skin injury, such as intravenous catheter sites, sites of traumatic inoculation, and sites associated with occlusive dressings, burns, or surgery. Isolation of Aspergillus blood (except A terreus) but is isolated readily from lung, sinus, and skin biopsy specimens when cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar or brain-heart infusion media (without cycloheximide). Aspergillus species can be a laboratory contaminant, but when evaluating results from ill, immunocompromised patients, recovery of this organism frequently indicates be taken to distinguish aspergillosis from mucormycosis, which appears similar by diagnostic imaging studies. An enzyme immunosorbent assay serologic test for detection of galactomannan, a molecule found in the cell wall of Aspergillus species, from the serum or supports a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, and serum monitoring of serum antigen concentrations twice weekly in periods of highest risk (eg, neutropenia and active graftversus-host disease) may be useful for early detection of invasive aspergillosis in at-risk patients. False-positive test results have been reported and can be related to consumption of food products containing galactomannan (eg, rice and pasta), colonization of the gut of neonates with species, or cross-reactivity with antimicrobial agents derived from fungi (eg, penicillins, especially piperacillin-tazobactam). False-negative galactomannan test results consistently occur in patients with chronic granulomatous disease, so the test should not be used in these patients. In allergic aspergillosis, diagnosis is suggested by a typical clinical syndrome with AspergillusAspergillus antieosinophilia, and a positive skin test result not associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis often are present. Itraconazole alone is an alternative for mild to moderate cases of aspergillosis, although extensive drug interactions and poor absorption (capsular form) limit its utility.
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Guidance for evaluating health-care personnel for hepatitis B virus protection and for administering postexposure management. These interviews should be documented, and approval for each sibling visit should be noted. No child with fever or symptoms of an acute infection, including upper respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, or cellulitis, should be allowed to visit. Siblings who recently have been exposed to a person with a known communicable disease and are susceptible should not be allowed to visit. Siblings who are visiting should have received all recommended immunizations for Asymptomatic siblings who recently have been exposed to varicella but have been immunized previously can be assumed to be immune. The visiting sibling should visit only his or her sibling and not be allowed in playrooms with groups of patients. Guidelines for pet visitation should be established to minimize risks of transmission of pathogens from pets to humans or injury be developed in consultation with pediatricians, infection-control professionals, nursing staff, the hospital epidemiologist, and veterinarians. Supervisors should be familiar with institutional policies for managing animal bites and cleaning pet urine, feces, or vomitus. Patients having contact with pets must have approval from a physician or physician representative before animal contact. Concern for contamination of other body sites should be considered on a case-by-case basis. All health care personnel should be aware of the routes of transmission and techniques to prevent transmission of infectious agents. Immunocompromised children and neonates should be kept away from people with potentially contagious infections. In waiting rooms of ambulatory care facilities, use of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be implemented for patients and accompanying people with suspected respiratory tract infection. In health care settings, alcohol-based hand products are preferred for decontaminating hands routinely. Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings 2007. Alcohol is preferred for skin preparation before immunization or routine venipuncture. Skin preparation for incision, suture, or collection of blood for culture requires 70% alcohol, alcohol tinctures of iodine (10%), or alcoholic chlorhexidine (>0. Policies should be established for removal and the disposal of sharps containers consistent with state and local regulations. A written bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan that includes policies for mansures of nonintact skin and mucous membranes, should be developed, readily available Standard guidelines for decontamination, disinfection, and sterilization should be followed meticulously. Appropriate use of antimicrobial agents is essential to limit the emergence and spread Policies and procedures should be developed for communication with local and state health authorities about reportable diseases and suspected outbreaks. Physicians should be aware of requirements of government agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, as they relate to the operation of phy- 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Because asymptomatic gonorrhea infection among males is uncommon and substantial disparities in disease prevalence exist, providers should consider gonorrhea screening of sexually active adolescent and young adult males annually on the basis of individual and population-based risk factors, such as disparities by race and neighborhoods. Factors that may put females at higher risk of 1 American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence and Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Decisions regarding the agents for which to perform serologic tests immediately, specimens preserved for subsequent analysis, and specimens used as a baseline for comparison with follow-up serologic tests should be made on a case-by-case basis. All adolescents should receive hepatitis B virus immunization if they were not immunized earlier in childhood. Patients and their partners treated for N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis moniasis should be advised to refrain from sexual intercourse for 1 week after completion of appropriate treatment. However, any person with pharyngeal gonorrhea who is treated with an alternative regimen should tive cultures for test-of-cure should undergo antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Partner treatment is essential, both from a public health perspective and to protect the index patient from reinfection. Teenagers need to consider the possible association between alcohol or drug use and failure to appropriately use barrier methods correctly when either partner is impaired. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence and Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. In an infant or toddler in diapers, genital herpes may result through any of these mechanisms. Physicians are required by law to report known or suspected abuse to their local state child protective services agency. Screening for nonviral sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults. Many experts believe that prophylaxis is warranted for postpubertal female patients who seek care after an episode of sexual victimization because of the possibility of a preexisting asymptomatic infection, the potential risk for acquisition of new infections with compliance with follow-up visits for sexual assault. Postmenarcheal patients should be tested for pregnancy before antimicrobial treatment or emergency contraception is provided. Although levonorgestrel emergency contraception is most effective if taken within 72 hours of event, data suggest it is effective up to 120 hours. On any given day, approximately 120 000 adolescents are held in juvenile correctional facilities or adult prisons or jails. Female juveniles in custody represent a much larger proportion of "status" offenders, with offenses including ungovernability, running away, truancy, curfew violation, and underage drinking, than "delinJuvenile offenders commonly lack regular access to preventive health care in their disorders, chronic illness, exposure to illicit drugs, and physical trauma when compared with adolescents who are not in the juvenile justice system. Infected juveniles place their communities at risk after their release from detention. High recidivism rates lead many juvenile offenders to adult prisons, found in juvenile correctional facilities. Correctional facilities, in partnership with public health departments and other community resources, have the opportunity to assess, contain, control, and prevent liver infection in a highly vulnerable segment of the population. The controlled nature of the correctional system facilitates initiation of many hepatitis-prevention (eg, education and counseling) and -treatment strategies for an adolescent population that otherwise is Hepatitis A Correctional facilities in the United States rarely report cases of hepatitis A, and national prevalence data for incarcerated populations are not available. However, adolescents who have signs or symptoms of hepatitis should be tested for acute hepatitis A, acute hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Correctional facilities in all states should consider routine HepA immunization of all adolescents under their care because of the likelihood that most adolescents in the juvenile correctional system have indications for HepA immunization. Adolescent female inmates present additional challenges for hepatitis B assessment and management if they are pregnant during incarceration, in which case coordination of care for mother and infant becomes paramount. All adolescents receiving medical evaluation in a correctional facility should begin the hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine series or complete a previously begun series unless they have proof of completion of a previous HepB immunization series. Beginning a HepB vaccine series is critical, because a single dose of vaccine may confer protection from infection and subsequent complications of chronic carriage in a high-risk adolescent who may be lost to follow-up. Inmates commonly refuse testing, even when at high risk of hepatitis, to avoid persecution from fellow prisoners. This includes lifestyle alterations and avoidance of street drug and alcohol abuse, which increase morbidity and mortality from hepatitis C. Focused screening of adult inmates on the basis of risk criteria has proven reliable and cost-effective for correctional facilities that use it consistently. Incarcerated adolescents with hepatitis C-related chronic liver disease or with ongoing risk behaviors should receive HepA and HepB vaccines if not already immunized. In recent years, more than 90% of international adoptees were from Asian (China, South Korea, Taiwan, India, and Philippines), Latin American and Caribbean (Guatemala and Colombia), Eastern European (Russia and the Ukraine), and African (Ethiopia, Nigeria) countries. The child should be seen by his or her pediatrician or a physician who specializes in adoption medicine as soon as possible after arrival in the United States to begin all preventive health services, including immunizations. See Children Who Received Immunizations Outside the United States or Whose Immunization Status is Unknown or Uncertain (p 98) for recommendations regarding immunizations. Children may be asymptomatic, and the diagnoses must be made by laboratory or other tests in addition to history and physical examination. The prevalence of intestinal parasites varies by age of the child and country of origin. Additionally, for refugees, guidelines differ depending on whether the child received presumptive therapy overseas ( In addition, Cryptosporidium species is a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in infants in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
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The intensity of a murmur is not a consistently reliable indication of the severity of the causative lesion. Specific causes include valvular incompetence or stenosis, abnormal vascular or cardiac chamber communications, anemia, fever, and anxiety. Murmurs, which may be innocent (associated with alterations in blood flow, but not with organic cardiac disease) or pathologic (associated with cardiac disease), are classified by their location, duration, timing within the cardiac cycle, intensity, and character. Murmurs may be systolic (occurring during systole-between S1 and S2) or diastolic (occurring during diastole-between S2 and S1), and are described as continuous or holo- (or pan-), early, mid-, and late systolic or diastolic (Fig 1). The pitch of the murmur, described as high, low, or mixed frequency, may help to identify the underlying disorder. An important diagnostic clue, especially in the instance of congenital heart disease, is the further characterization of murmurs according to their quality. Regurgitant murmurs are rectangular or plateau-shaped, and ejection murmurs are diamond-shaped or crescendo-decrescendo in nature (Fig1). Systolic ejection murmurs suggest pulmonic or aortic stenosis or atrial septal defect (Fig 4). Continuous murmurs are produced by arteriovenous connections (patent ductus arteriosus or arteriovenous fistulae; Figs 1 and 4). Diastolic murmurs, which are uncommonly encountered, are associated with semilunar valvular insufficiency or atrioventricular valvular stenosis (Fig 1). Non-continuous, systolic-diastolic murmurs are most often associated with vegetative endocarditis. Likewise, the murmurs of anemia (packed-cell volume less than 20%), fever, anxiety, or pregnancy are not associated with structural cardiac disease and have been termed physiologic murmurs. Either the first (S1) or second (S2) heart sound may be split, producing two nearly simultaneous sounds, similar in quality to the single sound from which they arose ("lub-lub dub") or "lub dub-dub" for split S1 or S2, respectively). Splitting of the first heart sound is produced by asynchronous closure of the atrioventricular valves. While it is considered to be normal in large breed dogs, it may be associated with ventricular conduction disturbances, ventricular pacing, or arrhythmias (Fig 1). Spitting of the second heart sound occurs when the semilunar valves close asynchronously (Fig 1). Splitting of S2 is most frequently associated with delayed closure of the pulmonic valve, as is seen in pulmonary hypertension (usually due to heartworm disease), pulmonic stenosis, or right bundle branch block, or in normal dogs, during inspiration. It is occasionally observed with early closure of the aortic valve in states of diminished left ventricular output. Paradoxical splitting of S2 results when significant prolongation of left ventricular conduction and/or ejection time (left bundle branch block, subaortic stenosis, systemic hypertension, or severe left ventricular hypertrophy) delays closure of the aortic valve until after pulmonic valve closure. Cardiac gallops or gallop rhythms, consisting of a series of sounds reminiscent of a galloping horse, are composed of S1, S2, and S3 or S4 ("lub dub thud"); the extra sound is of low frequency and may be difficult to hear. Cardiac gallops occur when S3 (protodiastolic gallop), S4 (presystolic gallop), or a combination of S3 and S4 (summation gallop) is abnormally accentuated (Fig 1). S3 gallops are produced when blood rushes into an incompletely emptied ventricle during rapid ventricular filling (e. Cardiac gallops are considered to be pathologic in dogs and cats, and are often associated with a poor prognosis. Systolic clicks are abnormal, usually midsystolic, high frequency sounds associated with mitral valve prolapse in humans. They are thought to be a preregurgitant phenomenon in dogs or are variably associated with systolic murmurs of mitral regurgitation (Fig 1). Friction rubs, associated with pericarditis and rarely heard in small animals, are "scratchy" biphasic or triphasic sounds audible during portions of both systole and diastole. They occur when inflamed and roughened pericardial and epicardial surfaces contact each other. A pericardial bump, variable in its number of components and intensity, accompanies early diastolic ventricular filling in the presence of restrictive pericarditis. It occurs when the rapidly filling ventricles are suddenly restricted by the limiting pericardium. Attenuation of muffling of normal heart sounds may be an important indicator of thoracic disease. Disorders associated with muffled heart sounds include pericardial and pleural effusion, diaphragmatic hernias, thoracic neoplasia, obesity, and hypothyroidism. Certain arrhythmias, such as sinus arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation, are virtually diagnostic upon cardiac auscultation when the femoral pulse is palpated concurrently. Sinus arrhythmia is "regularly irregular" without pulse deficits, and changes in rate are usually associated with respiration. Atrial fibrillation is characterized as being "irregularly irregular," with marked variability in the intensity of S1, variable pulse strength, and frequent pulse deficits. Unifocal ventricular tachycardia is typically regular, and the pulses, although often weak, are palpable and without deficits. Supraventricular (atrial or junctional) tachycardia tends to be very rapid, but is difficult to distinguish from sinus and ventricular tachycardia without electrocardiographic evaluation. Abrupt cessation of a tachyarrhythmia with administration of a vagal maneuver is diagnostic of supraventricular tachycardia. Isolated supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats produce early, abnormal heart sounds (often only S1 is heard), followed by a pause and typically weak or non-existent pulse. With sinus bradycardia or second- and third-degree heart block, the rate is slow and there is no pulse deficit. In the case of first- and second-degree atrioventricular block, S4 (atrial systole) can occasionally be heard. The finding of a supposedly innocent murmur in a healthy pup requires no more than a follow-up examination at the next vaccination appointment. Conversely, the finding of a systolic-diastolic murmur in a dog with fever, joint pain, and dyspnea may require a complete cardiologic and medical workup, blood cultures, and hospitalization. If the abnormal heart sound(s) cannot be accurately characterized, its exact character can often be determined by obtaining a phonocardiogram (Fig 1). This procedure, although not routinely available in private practice, may be necessary to determine the exact timing or character of a murmur and the type of gallop, or in distinguishing, for example, whether a subtle sound is a gallop, split sound, or systolic click. Phonocardiography is particularly useful in small animal practice where such factors as uncooperative patients, rapid heart rates, and panting or purring decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of cardiac auscultation. Electronic digital stethoscopes, which allow the murmur to be recorded and replayed at half speed, may also employed in cases in which the character of a murmur or exact nature of an abnormal heart sound is difficult to accurately assess. Once abnormal sounds have been identified, the goal is to determine the presence, severity, and exact nature of underlying cardiac disease. This is accomplished by performing the following procedures, when indicated: thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, extended electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring, echocardiography with or without Doppler studies, blood gas analysis, and cardiac catheterization (selective or nonselective) with oximetry, pressure measurement, and angiography. The indications for such procedures and the expected results are explored in greater detail in subsequent chapters. This timing is variable, but may require no more frequent visits than the yearly vaccination appointment. Patients with more severe afflictions (those with impending heart failure, heart failure, or potentially life-threatening arrhythmias) obviously require more frequent reevaluation. It should be emphasized that if the nature of an abnormal heart sound or the resultant diagnosis is unclear, referral to a specialist with the expertise and specialized equipment to effect a more in-depth examination and evaluation is advisable. Drug Class Review on Beta Adrenergic Blockers Final Report May 2005 the purpose of this report is to make available information regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety profiles of different drugs within pharmaceutical classes. Reports are not usage guidelines, nor should they be read as an endorsement of, or recommendation for, any particular drug, use or approach. Oregon Health & Science University does not recommend or endorse any guideline or recommendation developed by users of these reports. For adult patients with various indications, do beta blockers differ in adverse effects?. Are there subgroups for which one beta blocker is more effective or associated with fewer adverse events? Comparison of outcomes of mortality-reducing beta blockers in patients following myocardial infarction. Summary of results from placebo-controlled trials of beta blocker therapy following myocardial infarction. Main findings in placebo-controlled trials of patients with mild-moderate heart failure. Patient characteristics and annualized mortality rates adjusted for active drug run-in periods in trials of beta blockers for heart failure.
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If she wants new implants, they are placed above or below the site of the previous implants or in the other arm. If she wants to keep using implants and no new medical condition prevents it, remind her how much longer her implants will protect her from pregnancy. Managing Any Problems Problems Reported as Side Effects or Complications May or may not be due to the method. Irregular bleeding (bleeding at unexpected times that bothers the client) Reassure her that many women using implants experience irregular bleeding. For modest short-term relief, she can take 800 mg ibuprofen or 500 mg mefenamic acid 3 times daily after meals for 5 days, beginning when irregular bleeding starts. If irregular bleeding continues or starts after several months of normal or no monthly bleeding, or you suspect that something may be wrong for other reasons, consider underlying conditions unrelated to method use (see Unexplained vaginal bleeding, p. No monthly bleeding If she has no monthly bleeding soon after implant insertion, rule out pregnancy. Reassure her that some women stop having monthly bleeding when using implants, and this is not harmful. It is similar to not having monthly bleeding during pregnancy because of the effect of the hormones. Heavy or prolonged bleeding (twice as much as usual or longer than 8 days) Reassure her that some women using implants experience heavy or prolonged bleeding. For modest short-term relief, she can try any of the treatments for irregular bleeding, above, beginning when heavy bleeding starts. If heavy or prolonged bleeding continues or starts after several months of normal or no monthly bleeding, or you suspect that something may be wrong for other reasons, consider underlying conditions unrelated to method use (see Unexplained vaginal bleeding, p. Any headaches that get worse or occur more often during use of implants should be evaluated. Breast tenderness Recommend that she wear a supportive bra (including during strenuous activity and sleep). Put a new bandage on the arm and advise her to avoid pressing on the site for a few days. Infection at the insertion site (redness, heat, pain, pus) Do not remove the implants. Ask the client to return after taking all antibiotics if the infection does not clear. Abscess (pocket of pus under the skin due to infection) Do not remove the implants. Ask the client to return after taking all antibiotics if she has heat, redness, pain, or drainage of the wound. If infection is present when she returns, remove the implants or refer for removal. If no infection is present, after explanation and counseling replace the expelled rod or capsule through a new incision near the other rods or capsules, or refer for replacement. To be sure the problem is resolving, see the client again in 6 weeks, if possible. With severe abdominal pain, be particularly alert for additional signs or symptoms of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is rare and not caused by implants, but it can be life-threatening (see Question 7, p. Unexplained vaginal bleeding (that suggests a medical condition not related to the method) Refer or evaluate by history and pelvic examination. If no cause of bleeding can be found, consider stopping implants to make diagnosis easier. If bleeding is caused by sexually transmitted infection or pelvic inflammatory disease, she can continue using implants during treatment. Certain serious health conditions (suspected blood clots in deep veins of legs or lungs, serious liver disease, or breast cancer). Heart disease due to blocked or narrowed arteries (ischemic heart disease) or stroke A woman who has one of these conditions can safely start implants. If, however, the condition develops while she is using implants: - Remove the implants or refer for removal. Suspected pregnancy Assess for pregnancy, including ectopic pregnancy (see Severe pain in lower abdomen, previous page). There are no known risks to a fetus conceived while a woman has implants in place (see Question 5, next page). Annual visits may be helpful for other preventive care, but they are not necessary or required. Of course, women are welcome to return at any time with questions or to have implants removed. Leaving the implants in place beyond their effective lifespan is generally not recommended if the woman continues to be at risk of pregnancy. The implants themselves are not dangerous, but as the hormone levels in the implants drop, they become less and less effective. After they lose effectiveness, they may still release a small dose of hormone for several more years, which serves no purpose. If a woman wants to continue using implants, she may have a new implant inserted in the other arm even if the first implant is not removed at that time, for example, if removal services are not immediately available. Women who stop using implants can become pregnant as quickly as women who stop nonhormonal methods. The bleeding pattern a woman had before she used implants generally returns after they are removed. Will the fetus be harmed if a woman accidentally becomes pregnant with implants in place? Good evidence shows that implants will not cause birth defects and will not otherwise harm the fetus if a woman becomes pregnant while using implants or accidentally has implants inserted when she is already pregnant. Rarely, a rod may start to come out, most often in the first 4 weeks after insertion. This usually happens because they were not inserted well or because of an infection where they were inserted. If a woman notices a rod coming out, she should start using a backup method and return to the clinic at once. The rate of ectopic pregnancy among women with implants is 6 per 100,000 women per year. The rate of ectopic pregnancy among women in the United States using no contraceptive method is 650 per 100,000 women per year. On the very rare occasions that implants fail and pregnancy occurs, 10 to 17 of every 100 of these pregnancies are ectopic. Still, ectopic pregnancy can be life-threatening, and so a provider should be aware that ectopic pregnancy is possible if implants fail. Some but not all studies have found that Jadelle implants became slightly less effective for heavier women after 4 or more years of use. As a precaution, women weighing over 80 kg may want to have their implants replaced after 4 years for greatest effectiveness. Studies of Implanon have not found that effectiveness decreases for heavier women within the lifespan approved for this type of implant. Yes, a woman can do her usual work immediately after leaving the clinic as long as she does not bump the insertion site or get it wet. Instead, asking the right questions can help the provider be reasonably certain she is not pregnant (see Pregnancy Checklist, inside back cover). No condition that can be detected by a pelvic examination rules out use of implants. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria, age is not relevant to implant use. All young women seeking contraception, whether married or not and whether or not they have had children, can safely choose from the full range of available contraceptive methods.
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Bharadwaj 2492 - 8:30 Visual acuity and optical resolution in two-photon infrared vision. Francis 2499 - 8:30 Clinical course of radiationinduced choroidal tumor vasculopathy with progressive exudative retinal detachment following plaque radiotherapy for primary posterior uveal melanoma. Stitt 2505 - A0039 Hyperglycemia-driven dysregulation of Sp1 transcription factor in retinal cells. Anatomy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany 2554 - A0144 Lack of regional axon loss in a murine glaucoma model. Department of Ophthalmology, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 2567 - A0157 Neuroprotective effect of a dietary supplement against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in experimental glaucoma models. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation; 2The A. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Dental University, Moscow, Russian Federation; 3Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation 2571 - A0161 Assessment of the effects of systemically administered levetiracetam in an ocular model for neuroprotection. Biology Dept, Zoological Inst, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 2580 - A0170 Synaptic inputs to a gamma ganglion cell in rabbit retina. Badea 2578 - A0168 Characterization of the nonlinear receptive fields of G9 and Offalpha Ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai, China 2588 - A0178 Genetic dissection of photoreceptor contributions to the mouse ganglion cell receptive field. Djalilian 2601 - A0191 Activation of proteasome by inhibiting autophagy in corneal epithelia cells with limbal stem cell deficiency. Ophthalmology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan 2632 - A0222 Effect of the corneal epithelium on the topographical properties of thin and irregular corneas. VitroScreen Srl, Milan, Italy 2639 - A0229 Platelet-rich Plasma Eye Drops in the Healing of Post-Keratoplasty Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects. Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China 2641 - A0231 the effectiveness of tarsorrhaphy in healing persistent epithelial defects in cases of office based sutureless amniotic membrane treatment failure. Optometry and Vision, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain 2656 - A0246 In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Demonstrates the Presence of Microneuromas and may Allow Differentiation of Patients with Corneal Neuropathic Pain from Dry Eye Disease. Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom 2667 - A0257 Clinical Efficacies and Serum Components of Autologous Serum Eye Drops in Patients with Different Etiologies of Ocular Surface Disorders. National Taiwan University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan f 2668 - A0258 Safety and Efficacy of 0. Aier school of opthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China 2726 - A0430 Comparison of postoperative surface light scattering in various hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses. Department of Ophthalmology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang, Korea (the Republic of) 2727 - A0431 Development of a twocomponent intraocular lens system for cataract surgery. Division of Optometry and Visual Science, City, University of London, London, United Kingdom 2748 - A0452 Clinical Accuracy and Precision of a Hand-Held Shack Hartman Wavefront Sensor Autorefractor. Daiger 2750 - B0077 Genomics approaches to identify an elusive defect at chromosome 17q22 in an autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa family. Retina, Conde de Valenciana, Mexico, Mexico 2770 - B0097 Characterising X-linked Inherited Retinal Disease in New Zealand identifies unique population demographics and genotypes. Centre for Ophthalmology, Inst for Ophthalmic Rsrch Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany 2783 - B0110 Genome wide analysis of enucleated Coats eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Nagasaki Univ School of Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan 2797 - B0234 Analysis of prognostic factors for a successful result after surgery for Idiopathic Macular Hole. Morphological & Surgical Sci, Univ of Insubria-Circolo Hosp, Varese, Italy 2798 - B0235 Comparison of 20-gauge, 23-gauge, and 25-gauge Vitrectomy Instrumentation for the Repair of Diabetic Tractional Retinal Detachment. Kiilgaard 2791 - B0228 27-gauge vitrectomy wound integrity: a randomized pilot study comparing angled versus straight entry in fluid-filled vitrectomized eyes. VitreoRetinal Unit, University Eye Clinic, Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany 2819 - B0256 Comparative Analysis of 3 Different Intraocular Pressure Measurement Techniques in Surgical Retina Clinic. VitreoRetina, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 2825 - B0262 Comparison of individual retinal layer thicknesses after epiretinal membrane surgery with or without internal limiting membrane peeling. Ophthalmology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of) 2826 - B0263 Decision Tree Analysis in Macular Hole Surgery. Ophthalmology, Gifu Univ Grad School of Med, Gifu-shi, Japan 2836 - B0439 Association of Ocular Dominance and Humphrey Visual Field Parameters: Mean Deviation, Pattern Standard Deviation, and Visual Field Index. Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan f 2866 - B0469 Longitudinal comparison of visual field outcomes obtained by a tablet perimeter and those returned by Humphrey Field Analyzer. Ophthalmology, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore, Singapore 2889 - B0535 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy are associated with Impaired Myocardial Function in Patients with Cardiomyopathy. Ophthalmology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea (the Republic of) 2890 - B0536 Associations of peripheral sensory, autonomic and anatomic neural characteristics and proliferative retinopathy in persons with type 1 diabetes. Ayton 2882 - B0528 the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Australian adults with selfreported diabetes: the National Eye Health Survey. Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 2913 - B0559 Assessment of the concordance of the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy made by color fundus photograph review. Hospital Universitario Austral, Pilar, Argentina 2914 - B0560 Sensitivity of 2 Dimensional Color Fundus Photography Surrogate Markers as for Diabetic Macular Oedema. Instituto de Oftalmologia Conde de Valenciana, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico 2917 - B0563 Variable Validity of Computer Extracted Problem Lists for Diabetic Retinopathy and other Co-Morbidities within the Greater Los Angeles Veterans Health Administration. Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of) f 2926 - B0572 Surgical Results of Medial Rectus Recession with Tendon Elongation in Sixth Nerve Palsy. University Clinic, Department for Ophthalmology, Regensburg, Germany 2927 - B0573 A variation on Optional Adjustable strabismus surgery: applying the Engel/Rousta technique to limbal incisions. Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 2928 - B0574 Corrective effect of Fresnel membrane prisms in the secondary and tertiary gaze positions. Ophthalmology 2, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan 2929 - B0575 What can we learn about strabismus from a 90 second gaze recording? Ospedale Sacro Cuore- Negrar - Verona, Negrar - Vr, Italy 2931 - B0577 A method for rapid objective strabismus angle measurement. Das 2918 - B0564 Prevalence and associations of diplopia in patients with epiretinal membranes. Session presentations span novel cell biological mechanistic studies, to clinical treatments and outcomes, to new treatments and challenges to commercializing cell-based therapies. Bernstein - 11:00 Introduction 326 Diabetic retinopathy clinical Moderators: Michael D. Abramoff and Neil Bressler 2946 - 11:00 the effect of HgbA1c and diabetes duration as risk factors for proliferative diabetic retinopathy is determined by common mitochondrial haplogroups in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Paraoan - 11:00 Introduction 2934 - 11:03 Pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2. Department of Ophthalmology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 2936 - 11:37 Keratoconus: An update on diagnosis and surgical treatments. Grosskreutz 2952 - 11:00 Role for dual leucine zipper kinase in human embryonic stem cellderived retinal ganglion cell death signaling. Kim and Anat Loewenstein 2959 - 11:00 Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Sickle Cell Retinopathy Eyes. Erik Eye Hospital, Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden f 2961 - 11:30 Focal breakdown of the blood retinal barrier is associated with fatal brain swelling in paediatric cerebral malaria. Ohia 2966 - 11:00 Verteporfin-induced formation of protein oligomers is mediated by light and leads to cell toxicity. Ostrin - 11:00 Introduction 2993 - 11:03 Changes in normal ocular biometry and optics with age. Ophthalmology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem, Belgium; Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium 2994 - 11:20 Imaging of age-related changes in lens and ciliary muscle accommodation. Bohnsack 2999 - 11:00 Ocular motor nerve development in the presence and absence of extraocular muscle. Ophthalmology, AsahikawaMedicalUniversity, Asahikawa, Japan 3031 - A0026 Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in preperimetric and glaucomatous eyes. Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Eye Clinic, Torino, Italy 3032 - A0027 Ripasudil (K-115) elicits dilation of isolated porcine retinal arterioles. Refractive Surgery, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen, China 3060 - A0314 the influence of hard and soft contact lenses on tear protein profiles: A perspective through the proteomic looking glass. Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany 3061 - A0315 Advanced contact lenses based on cyclodextrin-decorated hydrogels for controlled release of drugs and demulcents. School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China 3106 - B0009 the effect of different adaptation conditions on the dynamic vessel analysis.
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Adjusting to the effects of kidney failure and the time spent on dialysis can be difficult. They need to make changes in their work or home life, giving up some activities and responsibilities. A mental health counselor or renal social worker can help people who are approaching total kidney failure and those starting dialysis. People who have kidney failure and depression should not keep their depression to themselves or assume they can handle their problems on their own. They should tell their health care provider because depression can often be treated with adjustments to the diet and dialysis dose, medications, and counseling. Scientists are also studying the use of cognitive behavioral therapy-a way of correcting harmful thought and behavior patterns-to treat depression in people with total kidney failure. All dialysis centers and transplant clinics have a renal dietitian who specializes in helping people with kidney failure. These symptoms result from amyloidosis, a condition in which an abnormal protein in the blood called amyloid is deposited in tissues and organs, including the joints and tendons. Its Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases supports several kidney programs and studies. The End-Stage Renal Disease Program promotes research for patients on dialysis or with a kidney transplant. These include bone, blood, nervous system, intestinal, heart, and endocrine problems. The program is also designed to improve the effectiveness of dialysis and transplantation. Current efforts focus on home dialysis options and alternative dialysis schedules. Participants in clinical trials can play a more active role in their own health care, gain access to new research treatments before they are widely available, and help others by contributing to medical research. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory. You may also find additional information about this topic by visiting MedlinePlus at The ultimate judgment regarding any specific clinical procedure or treatment must be made by the physician in light of the circumstances presented by the patient. Post-marketing reports of acute renal failure and worsening of chronic renal failure. Select Drugs and Natural Products That Can Increase or Decrease the Effect of Immunosuppression Medications (eg, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus) Prescribed for Kidney Transplant Patients* Amiodarone Azole antifungals Carbamazepine Carvedilol Colchicine Diltiazem Hydantoins Lovastatin Macrolide antibiotics Metoclopramide Nefazodone * Prescription Medications: Nifedipine Orlistat Probucol Protease inhibitors Quinolones Rifamycins Serotonin reuptake inhibitors Sulfonamides Terbinafine Verapamil Natural Products: Grapefruit juice St. Even among patients with more severe kidney disease less than half (42%) of affected patients were aware of their disease. This staging system was recently revised and updated in 2013 and includes increased focus on the cause of kidney dysfunction and the presence of albuminuria (Table 2). In diabetics, screening for microalbuminuria has been shown to be more sensitive, and thus is recommended annually by many professional organizations and guidelines. Findings include those suggesting underlying connective tissue disorders or evidence of microvascular complications of diabetes (such as retinopathy), as well as a complete cardiovascular examination to assess for signs of peripheral arterial disease and/or heart failure. Urinalysis is performed to screen for hematuria and albuminuria, both of which are markers of kidney damage. If an albumin-tocreatinine ratio of 30-300 mg/g is obtained, consider repeat testing once in 2 weeks to establish persistence. Findings such as stones, masses, or hydronephrosis should prompt urologic evaluation. Patients with significant renovascular abnormalities should be referred to nephrologist. The new system also has increased emphasis on the presence and degree of albuminuria. Initial selection of a specific drug should be based on cost, potential side effects, and patient preference (Table 7). Assess potassium and serum creatinine levels before starting or changing the dose. Also essential are patient education and a multidisciplinary approach to disease management that include dieticians and social workers in addition to other health care providers. Angiotensin causes greater vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles than afferent arterioles, leading to glomerular hypertension. This leads to hyperfiltration, and prolonged hyperfiltration leads to glomerular structural and functional deterioration. A rise of up to 20-30% above the baseline is acceptable and not a reason to withhold treatment unless hyperkalemia develops. In general, systolic blood pressure should remain > 110 mm Hg and even higher if orthostatic symptoms occur. These patients can be prone to orthostatic hypotension, and aggressive blood pressure control (< 120/80) should be avoided. Drugs commonly used for glucose control in patients with diabetes are listed in Table 9. Renal deterioration leads to decreased renal metabolism of hypoglycemic drugs and/or insulin. As a result, cardiovascular benefit of high dose statins needs to be weighed against this increased risk in this population. A significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular events occurred in the treatment arm. It is likely not required for the majority of patients, especially those started on statins. Previous guidelines have suggested the use of fibric acid derivatives (eg, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate) in patients with elevated triglycerides both to reduce risk of pancreatitis and decrease cardiovascular risk. Primary care clinicians should consider referral to a nephrologist if Hgb < 10 and no obvious nonrenal cause is identifiable with initial work up. Phosphate restriction or phosphate binders should be prescribed in consultation with the nephrologist. Larger dose loop diuretics (2 to 3 times the usual dose) are often needed in nephrotic syndrome, due to binding of drugs to albumin. Several web-based resources exist for patients regarding foods high in potassium and phosphorus (Table 14). Table 15 also outlines some general strategies to prevent drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Allergic interstitial nephritis may occur around 6 months of therapy and may need a steroid course to resolve. Oral sodium phosphate (NaP) products (such as Visicol, OsmoPrep) products have been associated with acute phosphate nephropathy when used for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or other procedures. Consider using a polyethylene glycol solution for these patients instead (such as GoLytely). Recent studies have cast doubt on the nephrotoxicity of intravascular administration of iodinated contrast. Some specialty societies suggest that this warning about metformin is unnecessary in patients with normal or nearnormal renal function, given the lack of demonstrable clinical nephrotoxicity from iodinated contrast agents in this patient subset. Commonly prescribed hypertension medications (eg, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and potassium-sparing diuretics) may result in hyperkalemia in patients with decreased renal function. If high-risk situations are unavoidable (Table 4), monitor closely for acute decline. Comprehensive multi-disciplinary care by a nephrology team that includes nurses, social workers and dieticians is recommended.
- In endoscopic surgery, your surgeon makes 1 - 4 small holes in your chest. Surgery is done through the cuts using a camera and special surgical tools. For robotically-assisted valve surgery, the surgeon makes 2 - 4 tiny cuts in your chest. The cuts are about 1/2 to 3/4 inches each. The surgeon uses a special computer to control robotic arms during the surgery. A 3D view of the heart and mitral valve are displayed on a computer in the operating room. This method is very precise.
- New blood vessels starting to grow in the eye that are weak and can bleed
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The central artery of the retina will be seen to pulse on the optic disk as blood can only enter the eye during the systolic phase due to the high intraocular pressure. Differential diagnosis: Misdiagnosis is possible as the wide variety of symptoms can simulate other disorders. O General symptoms such as headache, vomiting, and nausea often predominate and can easily be mistaken for appendicitis or a brain tumor. Treatment: An acute glaucoma attack is an emergency, and the patient requires immediate treatment by an ophthalmologist. The underlying causes of the disorder require surgical treatment, although initial therapy is conservative. Time factor in reducing intraocular pressure: Conservative treatment Within six hours Surgery the next day Not within six hours Immediate surgery Principles of medical therapy in primary angle closure glaucoma (see Fig. The iris is withdrawn from the angle of the anterior chamber by administering topical miotic agents. If this is not effective, pilocarpine can be applied more often, every five minutes, and in concentrations up to 4%. Miotic agents also relax the zonule fibers, which causes anterior displacement of the lens that further compresses the anterior chamber. This makes it important to first initiate therapy with hyperosmotic agents to reduce the volume of the vitreous body. Symptomatic therapy with analgesic agents, antiemetic agents, and sedatives may be initiated where necessary. If this manipulation succeeds in keeping the trabecular meshwork open for a few minutes, it will permit aqueous humor to drain and reduce intraocular pressure. Once the cornea is clear, the underlying causes of the disorder are treated surgically by creating a shunt between the posterior and anterior chambers. Peripheral iridectomy (incisional procedure): Where the cornea is still swollen with edema or the iris is very thick, an open procedure may be required to create a shunt. The pressure in the posterior chamber increases (red arrows), and the peripheral iris is pressed against the trabecular meshwork. This blocks drainage of the aqueous humor and creates an acute angle closure (arrow). This permits the aqueous humor to flow into the anterior chamber despite the persisting pupillary block (asterisk). The iris recedes into its normal position, the trabecular meshwork (arrow) is opened again, the aqueous humor can drain normally, and normal intraocular pressure is restored. Prognosis: One can usually readily release a pupillary block and lower intraocular pressure in an initial attack with medication and permanently prevent further attacks with surgery. However, recurrent acute angle closure glaucoma or angle closure persisting longer than 48 hours can produce peripheral synechia between the root of the iris and the trabecular meshwork opposite it. Where intraocular pressure is controlled and the cornea is clear, gonioscopy is indicated to demonstrate that the angle is open again and to exclude persistent angle closure. However, the trabecular meshwork is congested and the resistance to drainage is increased. Deposits of amorphous acellular material form throughout the anterior chamber and congest the trabecular meshwork. The disorder is characterized by release of pigment granules from the pigmentary epithelium of the iris that congest the trabecular meshwork. Thirty-five to forty per cent of the population react to three-week topical or systemic steroid therapy with elevated intraocular pressure. Increased deposits of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork presumably increase resistance to outflow; this is reversible when the steroids are discontinued. The viscosity of the aqueous humor increases as a result of the influx of protein from inflamed iris vessels. The trabecular meshwork becomes congested with inflammatory cells and cellular debris. Denatured lens protein passes through the intact lens capsule into the anterior chamber and is phagocytized. The trabecular meshwork becomes congested with protein-binding macrophages and the protein itself. However, the primary configuration of the anterior chamber is not the decisive factor. Neovascularization draws the angle of the anterior chamber together like a zipper (neovascular glaucoma). Post-traumatic presence of blood or exudate in the angle of the anterior chamber and prolonged contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork in a collapsed anterior chamber (following injury, surgery, or insufficient treatment of primary angle closure) can lead to anterior synechiae and angle closure without rubeosis iridis. Contraction everts the posterior pigmented epithelium of the iris on to the anterior surface of the iris (arrow) in a condition known as ectropion uveae. Rubeosis iridis has drawn the angle of the anterior chamber together like a zipper. Secondary glaucomas may be caused by many different factors, and the angle may be open or closed. Glaucomas with uveitis (such as iritis or iridocyclitis) initially are treated conservatively with anti-inflammatory and antiglaucoma agents. The prognosis for secondary glaucomas is generally worse than for primary glaucomas. The result is a characteristic, abnormally large eye (buphthalmos) with a progressive increase in corneal diameter. It is bilateral in approximately 70% of all cases; boys are affected in approximately 70% of all cases; and glaucoma manifests itself before the age of six months in approximately 70% of all cases. Etiology: (See also physiology and pathophysiology of aqueous humor circulation): the iris inserts anteriorly far in the trabecular meshwork (Fig. Aside from isolated buphthalmos, other ocular changes can lead to secondary hydrophthalmos. Symptoms: Classic signs include photophobia, epiphora, corneal opacification, and unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the cornea. These changes may be present from birth (in congenital glaucoma) or may develop shortly after birth or during the first few years of life. Diagnostic considerations: these examinations may be performed without general anesthesia in many children. However, general anesthesia will occasionally be necessary to confirm the diagnosis especially in older children (Fig. One should generally attempt to measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry (tonometry with a hand-held tonometer). Measurement is facilitated by giving the hungry infant a bottle during the examination. Such a measurement is usually far more accurate than one obtained under general anesthesia as narcotics, especially barbiturates and halothane, reduce intraocular pressure. The optic cup is a very sensitive indicator of intraocular pressure, particularly in the phase in which permanent visual field defects occurs. Asymmetry in the optic cup can be helpful in diagnosing the disorder and in follow-up. Special considerations: A glaucomatous optic cup in children may well be reversible. Often it will be significantly smaller within several hours of a successful trabeculotomy. Chronically elevated intraocular pressure in children under the age of three will lead to enlargement of the entire globe. Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber provides crucial etiologic information.
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Prepares the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg (ovum), protects the embryo, enhances development of the placenta, and helps prepare the breasts for breastfeeding. G lo s s a r y G Glossary 405 ruptured ectopic pregnancy See Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, Appendix B, p. People become infected while wading or bathing in water containing larvae of the infected snails. Sperm are produced in the testes of an adult male, mixed with semen in the seminal vesicles, and released during ejaculation (see Male Anatomy, p. If untreated, may progress to systemic infection, causing general paralysis and dementia. Different vaginal bleeding patterns include: amenorrhea No bleeding at all at expected bleeding times. May be due to infection by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, or to chemical irritation. See iron-deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia anesthesia, anesthetic. See also contraceptive effectiveness for each method copper-bearing intrauterine device. See also calendar-based methods, symptoms-based methods contraceptive effectiveness. See also liver infection, reproductive tract infection, sexually transmitted infection, urinary tract infection 412 Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers and female sterilization. See copper-bearing intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device involution. See also no monthly bleeding, irregular bleeding, heavy vaginal bleeding, prolonged bleeding and fertility awareness methods. See also medical eligibility criteria for each specific contraceptive method medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate. See lactational amenorrhea method, fertility awareness methods, withdrawal nausea. See also abdominal pain, menstrual cramps, breast pain and tenderness after female sterilization. See aspirin, ibuprofen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs paracetamol as treatment. See vision damage due to diabetes 416 Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers return of fertility. See also heavy and prolonged bleeding, infrequent bleeding, irregular bleeding, lighter bleeding, no monthly bleeding vaginal discharge. See combined vaginal ring, progesterone-releasing vaginal ring vaginal secretions. See adolescence, adolescent I Index 419 Methodology this handbook provides evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration. The Global Handbook is the successor to the Essentials of Contraceptive Technology (Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program, 1997). Guidance in the first edition came from several similar consensus processes: y y y the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and the Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use. To discuss topics needing special attention, several subgroups met between October 2004 and June 2005. Then, a group of experts and, finally, representatives of collaborating organizations had the opportunity to review the entire text. The 2011 update of the handbook added guidance from the expert Working Group meeting in April 2008 for the Medical Eligibility Criteria and the Selected Practice Recommendations and 2 Technical Consultations related to these guidelines in October 2008 and January 2010. A group of experts reviewed the updates to this edition, made revisions, and contributed new content. Side effects: Conditions reported by at least 5% of users in selected studies, regardless of evidence of causality or biological plausibility, listed in order of frequency with the most common at the top. Terms describing health risks (percentage of users experiencing a risk): Common: 15% and <45% Uncommon: 1% and <15% Rare: 0. Depends on user keeping the ring in place, not leaving it out for more than 48 hours at a time. Typically, irregular bleeding for the first few months and then lighter and more regular bleeding. Irregular and prolonged bleeding at first, then no bleeding or infrequent bleeding. Typical bleeding patterns in first year Irregular, frequent, or prolonged bleeding in first 3 months. Users can add lubricants: When to put on Material Put on erect penis right before sex. How they feel during sex Noise during sex Lubricants to use May make a rubbing noise during sex. Require withdrawing from Can remain in vagina after the vagina before the erection softens. What they protect How to store Reuse Cost and availability Generally low cost and widely available. Longer and heavier monthly bleeding, irregular bleeding, and more cramping or pain during monthly bleeding. Anemia May contribute to irondeficiency anemia if a woman already has low iron blood stores before insertion. Main reasons for discontinuation Noncontraceptive benefits No monthly bleeding and hormonal side effects. Effective treatment for long and heavy monthly bleeding (alternative to hysterectomy). Postpartum use Use as emergency contraception Insertion Cost Can be inserted up to 48 hours postpartum. Fertility awareness methods require avoiding unprotected sex around the time when an ovary releases an egg. Uterine lining (endometrium) Lining of the uterus, which gradually thickens and then is shed during monthly bleeding. Hormonal methods thicken this mucus, which helps prevent sperm from passing through the cervix. The diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge cover the cervix so that sperm cannot enter. The combined ring and the progesterone-releasing vaginal ring are placed in the vagina, where they release hormones that pass through the vaginal walls. Some women bleed for a short time (for example, 2 days), while others bleed for up to 8 days. Usually there is no pregnancy, and the unfertilized egg cell dissolves in the reproductive tract. It may be fertilized in the tube at this time by a sperm cell that has travelled from the vagina. Male Anatomy and How Contraceptives Work in Men Penis Male sex organ made of spongy tissue. Semen, containing sperm, is released from the penis (ejaculation) at the height of sexual excitement (orgasm). Withdrawal of the penis from the vagina avoids the release of semen into the vagina. Vas deferens Each of the 2 thin tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal vesicles. Vasectomy involves cutting or blocking these tubes so that no sperm enters the semen.
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Knowledge of the types of mutations that occur and their relative (quantitative) importance is potentially of use in genetic counselling of families. Vitamin E also has been advocated to prevent progression of this retinal degeneration. This fatty acid accumulates in the retinal pigment epithelium, leading to photoreceptor cell degeneration. Treatment with a low-phytol, lowphytanic acid diet has resulted in the lowering of serum phytanic acid and stabilisation of retinal function. Currently, this condition can only be treated with aminoacid tablets and a very low protein diet with limited fruits and vegetables and 42000 cal a day from carbohydrates and fats. One possible alternative is to replace the defective gene with one that functions normally, by gene therapy, which is currently under clinical trials. These deposits are found in many different tissues, including the skin, muscle, conjunctiva, and others. The colour of the fovea, however, results from the pigment epithelium and choroid. The absence of ganglion cells at the fovea gives rise to red Eye Inborn errors of metabolism and the eye M Rajappa et al 513 spot surrounded by white diseased cells. The various tones of normal pigmentation in the fovea, which lacks ganglion cells, contrast with the surrounding macular region of the retina, in which intracellular accumulation of metabolic products results in opacification during the neural disease process. In other diseases, the pathogenesis of retinal involvement remains to be clarified. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased. Accurate diagnosis is important for medical management, determining prognosis and genetic counselling. Confirmed diagnosis based on laboratory investigations helps in early medical intervention. As most of the laboratory investigations are often based on chemical analysis of metabolites or measuring the enzyme(s) activity, it is of importance to note that the specimen(s) for biochemical analysis needed to be collected at the right time, ideally during the crisis period. Further precautions need to be taken to transport the specimen in an ideal condition and also preserve it for suitable analytical purpose. Through proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to prevent the natural history of the disease. Mannose-6-phosphate receptors present on numerous cell membranes bind lysosomal enzymes with mannose6-phosphate residues and facilitate the uptake of lysosomal enzymes. After these early exciting discoveries in 1970s, the progress in the 1980s was relatively slow. First, by means of genetic engineering, production of large quantities of recombinant enzymes became feasible. The efficient and preferential uptake of exogenous enzymes into certain compartments of the bodies leads to rapid clearance of enzymes in the bloodstream and deprives the availability of enzymes for uptake into less-accessible compartments. Infusionrelated reactions, such as urticarial rash, chills and rigors, and headache are common but not serious. It was found that development of antibodies is correlated with the residual enzyme activities in patients. Thus, application and development of other treatment modalities remains important. Chaperones are low molecular weight molecules that help unfold the proteins and thus enhance the residual enzyme activity. The inhibition of synthesis of storage substances coupled with the remaining enzyme activities results in the gradual disappearance of storage substances in cells. In critically ill infant, aggressive treatment before definitive confirmation of diagnosis is lifesaving and may reduce long-term sequelae. Efforts to provide treatment through somatic gene therapy are in early stage, but there is hope that this approach will provide additional therapeutic possibilities. A combined approach and management by an ophthalmologist, paediatrician, biochemist, and medical geneticist is warranted in most cases. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment have significantly improved the prognosis for many infants with inborn errors of metabolism. The Croonian Lectures Delivered Before the Royal College of Physicians, London, June 1908, 2nd edn. Effect of expanded newborn screening for biochemical genetic disorders on child outcome and parental stress. Ophthalmic manifestations and histopathology of infantile nephropathic cystinosis: report of a case and review of the literature. Demonstration that polyol accumulation is responsible for diabetic cataract by the use of transgenic mice expressing the aldose reductase gene in the lens. Mutations in the bile acid biosynthetic enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase underlie cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Transformation of 4-cholesten-3one and 7-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one into cholestanol and bile acids in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a review of biochemical findings of the patient population in the Netherlands. Treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: effects of Eye Inborn errors of metabolism and the eye M Rajappa et al 517 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 chenodeoxycholic acid, pravastatin, and combined use. Ophthalmic abnormalities in molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulfate oxidase deficiency. Genetics of retinitis pigmentosa: metabolic classification and phenotype/genotype correlations. Aldecoa V, Escofet-Soteras C, Artuch R, Ormazabal A, Gabau-Vila E, Martin-Martinez C. A mouse model of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina: early pigment epithelium damage and progressive retinal degeneration. Treatment of retinal and choroidal degenerations and dystrophies: current status and prospects for gene based therapy. Loci for classical and a variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis map to chromosomes 11p15 and 15q21-23. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of lysosomal and peroxisomal metabolic diseases. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: an emerging technology in pediatric neurology research. Electron microscopic examination of skin biopsy as a cost effective tool in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases. Sanfilippo disease type B: enzyme replacement and metabolic correction in cultured fibroblasts. Sandhoff disease: defective glycosaminoglycan catabolism in cultured fibroblasts and its correction by beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Additional lighting is not used for the formal tests and no pinhole testing is done. Distance acuity was measured using the Logarithmic 1- Foot Test Distance Chart: Both Eyes. Identifies the item right in front of her face and states that she has no preferred viewing. Identifies object at 6 inches and preferred viewing distance is right at her face. Given different, colored backgrounds with red shapes, the student states that the brown is the best and red is the worst. Lighting: Brightness and Glare: At 6 inches, looking at a colored picture on glossy paper is difficult with the lighting. Lighting impacts glossy materials, reflective surfaces, the smartboard, the computer, and other materials. Types of Lighting: the reading light is not functional for near activities and the classroom light can cast a shadow on her face. The lighting in the classroom might have influenced informal distance and near acuity results.
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In the case of Afghanistan the discouragement by the authorities could of course be due to the reasons cited above, however it could also be due to ignoring the priority of such issues. In many respects if violence against women was to get more publicity, whereby women would feel more comfortable to report such violence and seek professional help, albeit, legal, medical or governmental, the repercussions on the authorities would be costly. This in turn, would mean that many men, including war lords and local commanders would no longer be able to exercise local power over families and women and would inevitably cost millions of dollars to build up the health service and the legal structure to better able to deal with the surge of reports and solutions which would be sought. Failure to deal with this reality will however continue the detriment of thousands of Afghan women and plunder the country into further instability and poverty which needs the equality of women and men to pull them out of this quagmire of ills. Therefore, if such a survey does not take place, the true extent of violence inflicted on Afghan women will not be known and appropriate measures will not be able to be taken and women will continue as they do now, to suffer in silence at the behest of their fundamental rights. Strengthening the rule of law and justice in Afghanistan is critical to creating an enabling environment for progress in key areas such as gender equality, to enforce punishment for perpetrators which commit violence against women and to ultimately protect women in the future from enduring violence in general. Nevertheless, it is also essential to comprehend the traditions of Islam and Afghanistan and the part that these play in the modern Afghanistan of today. In the survey conducted by medica mondiale, the majority of the participants suggested that if a girl or young woman was forced into a marriage, they would advise her to "adapt and adjust". It will highlight the progress in the field of equality for women and demonstrate that the foundations are indeed laid to achieving this goal, but more sustainable support is needed to be afforded by the international community for realising these aims and further thought needs to be made with regards to the system which is currently envisaged to achieve these rights. The Bonn Agreement in 2001 determined to end the tragic conflict in Afghanistan and promote national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights in the country. Two years later a Constitutional Loya Jirga whereby 102 female delegates convened with their male colleagues to debate over a new Constitution culminated in a Constitution which granted afghan women equality with men (article 22) in 2003. Also in Article 22 Any kind of discrimination and distinction between the citizens of Afghanistan are prohibited. Prisons will have separate facilities for women and juveniles Net primary enrolment for girls will be at least 60 per cent, for boys 75 per cent 150,000 men and women will be trained in marketable skills Female teachers will be increased by 50 per cent University enrolments will be 100,000, with at least 35 per cent female students Basic package of health services will cover at least 90 per cent of the population the number of chronically poor female-headed households will be reduced by 20 per cent and their employment rates will be increased by 20 per cent. Without the equality of women being recognised and implemented across all spheres, there is little chance of the hope of a country like Afghanistan achieving its millennium goals or indeed sustaining peace and the economic stability that it strives for. The sustainable reconstruction and development of Afghanistan definitely requires the full participation of women in political, social, cultural and economic life. Afghanistan must build on its seemingly progressive attitudes and translate its pledges into actions whereby they eliminate the gross discrimination against women that exists, develop their human capital and ensure their leadership in order to guarantee their full and equal participation in all spheres of life. Gender Mainstreaming the Government of Afghanistan has developed a five years strategic benchmark. At present there are very few governmental agencies which have more than 10 per cent of women in the offices. Furthermore, the number of women has gone down in recent years instead of increasing across the spectrum. In spite of the commitment by the Government to aim to have 30 per cent of female workers in the ministries and other governmental offices by 2010, the government needs to look at its own ministries and representatives to encourage this change. Gender mainstreaming must emanate from within, and the government needs to take a first hand stance in this regard. Furthermore, the mandate of helping women directly who are subject to gross violations such as child and forced marriage, is not considered by many in the ministries. Its role of leading and coordinating Government efforts to advance the role of women needs to be more pivotal and supported at all levels of government and it should ensure that policies and programs are reviewed from a gender perspective. The gender focal points which have been appointed to direct and assist mainstreaming efforts within the other ministries should be given full support and provided a mechanism which will ensure the realisation of their goals. Millennium Development Goals the Millennium development goals are key to achieving human development in Afghanistan which lags well behind its neighbours and find itself near the bottom of the chart. This involved extending the time period for attaining the targets to 2020, revising the global targets to make them more relevant to Afghanistan, and adding a ninth goal on enhancing security (see Annex I). Eradicate Proportion of population 24 extreme below minimum level of poverty and dietary energy consumption hunger 2. Ensure Proportion of population 98 environmental using solid fuels (%) sustainability Proportion of population 16 with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural (%) Proportion of population with access to improved 0 sanitation, urban and rural (%) Prop. Develop a global partnership for development secure 28 98 75 94 26 63 31 3 28 7 44 0. As has been discussed throughout this report, the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women is key to the future sustainable development of Afghanistan and its ability to afford protection to women against gender based violence in all its forms. One of the major barriers for women to contribute to society is their inability to access economic opportunities. Furthermore, the fact that many afghan women are subject to childbirth at an early age and are not encouraged to delay getting pregnant inhibits their ability to practice a profession which many women are increasingly being trained for. Judicial System One of the main aspects of the Bonn Agreement was to rehabilitate and reform the justice sector. Under the Agreement a new Constitution was written and laws which apparently seemed inconsistent with International Standards and the rule of law were scrutinised. Various Commissions were set up to ensure that laws were in line with international law but at the same time maintained accordance with Islamic principles and afghan legal traditions. Various attempts to monitor and rebuild the sector were enthusiastic at best but were mostly dissolved. These lay out various time bound benchmarks to be achieved in order to strengthen the rule of law. A review and reform of oversight procedures relating to corruption lack of due process and miscarriage of justice will be initiated by end 2006 and fully implemented by end 2010. Furthermore, some laws have been reformed, further ones have been drafted and published along with the training of a few hundred judges and prosecutors and the building and rehabilitation of court facilities in key locations. In the light of this progress, women are more than ever reporting violence - whether this is an indication of a growing trend in reporting or illustrates an increase in gender based violence remains to be seen. The modern Constitution passed on January 3rd 2004 states in the preamble that the people of Afghanistan "will observe the United Nations Charter as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Furthermore, the Constitution clearly stipulates that it is dedicated to creating "a civil society void of oppression, atrocity and discrimination. Article 22 hold that the "citizens of Afghanistan, man and woman, have equal rights and duties before the law. Specifically, Article 3 states that "No law shall contravene the tenets and provisions of the holy religion of Islam in Afghanistan. Furthermore, articles such as these can be further used in conjunction with article 21 which requires that "at the request of the Government, or courts, the Supreme Court shall review laws. This is somewhat ambiguous as it is not known whether the Supreme Court can declare an article of the Constitution, unconstitutional 30 In essence, the Sharia law is deemed by many scholars (see section 5) as not derogatory to women and is in fact largely misinterpreted or simply not known. In addition, many reports have revealed that Judges at the city level are unfamiliar with the law and sometimes use their own personal interpretation of Sharia Law. This is particularly pertinent given the fact that less than 3% of women are in fact judges, and therefore male judges tend to be biased due to tradition. Furthermore it is stated that the Afghan judiciary faces a severe shortage of essential legal and professional resources. In general the level of qualifications which judges possess is very low, coupled with their lack of training and access to relevant texts, many judges are deemed to be unfamiliar with the law and make decisions without reference to the law. This paucity is detrimental to an efficient justice system and does not augur well for any citizen of Afghanistan seeking justice let alone women who tend to have even less capacity to access the justice system due to the right to free movement, and the right to access the legal system as a legal person that they face in their every day lives. Currently there are approximately 62,000 police of which less than one third of 1 per cent are female. As a result, many policemen believe that child marriage and violence against women is not in their remit, with many being insensitive to the needs of those reporting violence.